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NCCR North-South - Research Partnerships for Sustainable Development


Thank you for visiting the website of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South. The NCCR North-South programme formally ended in June 2014.

Please note that the content of this website will no longer be updated.

Publications: Papers

Author starts with: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Assainissement Environnemental Centré sur les Ménages

Directive provisoire

Eawag [Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology], WSSCC [Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council], 2006

Ferne Länder, andere Stoffflüsse

Eawag [Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology], 2006

German edition of Eawag News on material flows in foreign lands. An accounting method for the analysis of flows of ecologically significant materials and resources is increasingly being used by Eawag to assess acute environmental problems in developing and emerging countries. The German edition of Eawag News reports on projects carried out in Bangladesh, Eritrea, Congo/Rwanda, Cuba, Thailand and Vietnam.

EAWAG News 62d December 2006

Download from: EAWAG

Implementing the Bellagio Principles in Urban Environmental Sanitation Services

Provisional Guideline for Decision-Makers

Eawag [Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology], WSSCC [Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council], 2005

This guideline presents the Household-Centred Environmental Sanitation (HCES) approach, which was developed by an Environmental Sanitation Working Group of the Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC).

Download PDF or order hard copy from: Eawag (Available in English and French)

Impact of land certification on sustainable land resource management in dryland areas of eastern Amhara region, Ethiopia

Tsegaye Abate, Adgo Enyew , Selassie Yihenew G. , 2012

Journal of Agricultural Science 4(12):261–268.

Etude qualitative de suivi d’indicateurs dans la prise en charge communautaire du VIH/SIDA, et facteurs de survie après 12 mois de traitement dans les villes de Bouaké, Korhogo et Man.

C Acka-Douable, Alain Nicolas Betsi, Guéladio Cissé, Cléopâtre Kablan, Benjamin G. Koudou, Andres Tschannen, 2007

Care/Fonds Mondial de lutte contre le sida, le paludisme et la tuberculose, 57 p.

Food Insecurity, conflict and livelihood threats in Nepal

Jaganath Adhikari , 2010

This chapter examines the food security situation in Nepal and the impact of the recent armed conflict on the food security situation. It argues that food security is understood in different ways and that definitions have changed over time, as these definitions are influenced by different factors – both subjective and objective, and domestic and international.
Based on the analysis, some recommendations are made as to how to improve the food security situation in times of conflict, during normal times and in the context of globalisation.

In: Upreti BR, Müller-Böker U, editors. Livelihood Insecurity and Social Conflict in Nepal. Kathmandu: South Asia Coordination Office, pp 73-130.

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Collaborative research in the development of organic agriculture in Switzerland - a case study

Andrea Aeberhard, Stephan Rist, 2009

In: Daub CH, Burger P, Scherrer Y, editors. Creating Values for Sustainable Development. Proceedings of the 2nd International Sustainability Conference. Basel, pp 209-211

Koproduktion von Wissen in der Entwicklung des Biolandbaus - Einflüsse von Marginalisierung, Anerkennung und Markt.

Andrea Aeberhard, Stephan Rist, 2009

In: Mayer JA T, Leiber F, Dubois D, Fried P, Heckendorn F, Hillmann E, Klocke P, Lüscher A, Riedel S, Stolze M, Strasser F, Van der Heijden M, Willer H, editors. Wissenschaftstagung Ökologischer Landbau. Werte - Wege - Wirkungen: Biolandbau im Spannungsfeld zwischen Ernährungssicherung, Markt und Klimawandel. Zürich: Verlag Dr. Köster, Berlin, pp 8-10.

Transdisciplinary co-production of knowledge in the development of organic agriculture in Switzerland.

Andrea Aeberhard, Stephan Rist, 2009

Journal of Ecological Economics 68:1171-1181

Regionalentwicklung – Heterogener Lebens- und Wirtschaftsraum

Isabel Aerni, Astrid Wallner, Urs Wiesmann, 2007

Welt der Alpen - Erbe der Welt: Wissenschaftler/Innen berichten über ihre Ergebnisse und Erkenntnisse aus der Alpen- und der globalen Gebirgsforschung. Es geht um die aktuelle Dynamik und Langzeitsignale, um Risikomanagement und Nachhaltigkeit, aber auch um Mythen und Lebensalltag sowie um Autonomie und Fremdbestimmung im globalen Zusammenhang. Jeder dieser vier Themenbereiche wird mit einem Einführungsartikel eingeleitet und beinhaltet zwei Beiträge aus den Alpen sowie zwei weitere entweder aus den Anden, dem Karakorum, Kaukasus, Himalaja, den Berggebieten in Ostafrika, Lesotho oder Neuseeland. Nach dem von der UNO proklamierten «Internationalen Jahr der Berge» stellt sich die Frage, was die Geographie leisten kann, um zur nachhaltigeren Entwicklung der Gebirgsräume in einer globalisierten Welt beizutragen.

In: Wallner, A., Bäschlin, E., Grosjean, M., Labhart, T., Schüpbach, U., Wiesmann, U., editors. 2007. Welt der Alpen - Erbe der Welt. UNESCO Welterbe-Region Jungfrau-Aletsch-Bietschhorn. Bern: Haupt, pp. 185-195

Order this publication from: Haupt

River Water Shortage in a Highland–Lowland System

A Case Study of the Impacts of Water Abstraction in the Mount Kenya Region

Jos Aeschbacher, Hanspeter Liniger, Rolf Weingartner, 2005

The highland–lowland system of the Upper Ewaso Ng'iro Basin, with Mount Kenya functioning as a crucial water tower, has reached and repeatedly exceeded the limits of water availability in the past decade. In contrast to the heavily decreasing low flow discharge, the mean discharge does not show any decreasing tendency. This is due to higher flood flows, which may be induced by accelerated runoff generation due to land use change. The present study seeks to support Water Users' Associations (WUAs, ie self-help initiatives aiming to mitigate conflicts over the allocation of water) by providing them with up-to-date information about demand, supply and use of river water, as well as tools and methods for improving water management.

Mountain Research and Development 2005, 25(2), pp. 155-162

Order via your university library from: BioOne

Patterns of consumption and poverty in Delhi slums

Naveen Kumar Agrawal, 2003

Economic and Political Weekly 2003, 38(50), pp. 5294-5300

Available for purchase from: Economic and Political Weekly

Traditional Mediation in Sudan

Mey Eltayeb Ahmed, 2008

Poster, Kongress Mediation in Politik und Verwaltung, Zurich, 2 November

Specific characteristics in the development of erosion processes under rainfed agriculture

K. Akhmadov, Gulniso Nekushoeva, 2007

In: Pathways to Increasing the Productivity of Tajikistan’s Soils [in Russian].

The tillage and anastomose erosion development in Tajikistan

K. Akhmadov, RK Kumalova , Gulniso Nekushoeva, 2007

In Russian

Tajik Agrarian Academy Report Journal 1 (II): 75-83

Who gains from community conservation? Intended and unintended costs and benefits of participative approaches in Peru and Tanzania

Jamil Alca Castillo, Alex Alvarez, Marc Galvin, Tobias Haller, Patrick Meroka, 2008

Journal of Environmental & Development 17(2):118.

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Analysis of myths and realities of deforestation in Pakistan:

Implications for forestry extension

Tanvir Ali, Babar Shahbaz, Abid Qaiyum Suleri, 2006

This paper attempts to analyze myths and realities regarding deforestation in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan. It presents the perceptions of forest dependent people of the province regarding the forest use patterns, condition of forests, change in forest cover, factors responsible for the forest depletion and increase of illegal cutting. The intensive use of forest wood for household needs and ineffective forest management strategies by the forest department were some of the key reasons of deforestation in the study area. Policy guidelines are suggested for improving the effectiveness of forestry extension sevices.

International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 8(1):107-110.

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Impact of participatory forest management on financial assets of rural communities in Northwest Pakistan

Tanvir Ali, Munir Ahmad, Babar Shahbaz, Abid Qaiyum Suleri, 2007

"The system of participatory (or joint) forest management was commenced in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan in 1996 through Asian Development Bank's funded project. These forest reforms seek to initiate the process of eliminating the main causes of forest depletion through participation of local communities. Nevertheless, despite decades of the donor's interventions the deforestation rate in NWFP is still alarming. In this paper we have attempted to analyze the participatory forest management in Northwest Pakistan through livelihood lenses. More specifically this paper explores the impact of joint forest management initiatives on financial assets and livelihood strategies of local people. The overall results indicated that majority of the respondents were not dependent on the natural resources for their cash income rather they had adopted diverse non-natural resource based activities such as migration, labour etc. The results also indicated that the main priorities of the local people were financial and food security; where as the NWFP model of joint forest management gives more emphasis on forest protection and regeneration. Although the joint forest management enhanced the social assets of the local communities yet the omission of immediate financial benefits from the institutional changes in the forestry sector of NWFP was a barrier in motivating the local people in forest protection and was one of the main issues hindering the effectiveness of the forest reforms process."

Ecological Economics 2007, Volume 63, Issues 2-3, pp. 588-593

Available from: ScienceDirect

Attitudinal and Relational Factors Predicting the Use of Solar Water Disinfection

A Field Study in Nicaragua

Anne-Marie Altherr, Fabrizio Butera, Hans-Joachim Mosler, Robert Tobias, 2006

"Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is an uncomplicated and cheap technology providing individuals with safe drinking water by exposing water-filled plastic bottles to sunlight for 6 hours to kill waterborne pathogens. Two communities were visited, and 81 families (40 SODIS users and 41 nonusers) were interviewed. The relationship between several factors and the intention to use SODIS in the future and actual use were tested. The results showed that intention to use and actual use are mainly related to an overall positive attitude, intention to use is related to the use of SODIS by neighbors, and actual use is related to knowledge about SODIS; SODIS users reported a significantly lower incidence in diarrhea than SODIS nonusers. These results suggest that promotion activities should aim at creating a positive attitude, for example, by choosing a promoter that is able to inspire confidence in the new technology."

Health Education & Behavior 2006, published online 17 November 2006

Available from: SAGE JOURNALS Online

Las políticas públicas del territorio amazónico de la Región del Cuzco

Una aproximación para su estudio

Alex Alvarez, 2006

Estudios Amazónicos 2006, No.4, pp. 83-108.

Available for purchase from: Centro Cultural José Pío Aza

The difficult invension of participation in the Amarakaeri Communal Reserve, Peru

Alex Alvarez, Jamil Alca Castillo, Marc Galvin, 2008

In: Galvin M, Haller T, editors. People, Protected Areas and Global Change: Participatory Conservation in Latin America, Africa, Asia and Europe. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, University of Bern, Vol. 3.Bern: Geographica Bernensia, pp 111-144.

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Soil properties and crop yields along the terraces and toposequece of Anjeni watershed, central highlands of Ethiopia

Tadele Amare , Hans Hurni, Aemro Terefe, Bettina Wolfgramm, Selassie Yihenew G. , Birru Yitaferu, 2013

Journal of Agricultural Science 5(2):134–144.

Contribution à la caractérisation de la production des boues de vidange de la ville de Yaoundé

Armand Ambassa Ndiomo, 2005

In: Mémoire de Dess en Sciences de l’environnement. Université de Yaoundé, Cameroun.

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Sustainable Development and International Cooperation in the Eastern Nile Basin

Salah El-Din Amer, Yacob Arsano, Atta El-Battahani, Osman El-Tom Hamad, Magdy Abd El-Moenim Hefny, Imeru Tamrat, 2005

The following article provides an overview of issues related to international cooperation and water use in the Eastern Nile Basin, thereby introducing the following three papers written from an Ethiopian, Sudanese and Egyptian perspective respectively. Basic environmental and socio-economic data is given. The various national interests and international initiatives in the Nile Basin are introduced. Key areas of consensus between the authors, as well as open questions that still need to be worked on, are elaborated. The article also describes the unique process of how the six authors from three countries worked on this joint publication in the Nile Dialogue Workshop of 2002. Key conclusions are that sustained, non-polemical communication can lead to cooperation, and that cooperation is the cornerstone to sustainable water development.

Aquatic Sciences 2005, (67): pp. 3-14.

Available for purchase from: SpringerLink

The Impact of Demand Factors, Quality of Care and Access to Facilities on Contraceptive Use in Tanzania

Mary Arends-Kuenning, Flora Kessy, 2007

The low contraceptive prevalence rate and the existence of unmet demand for family planning services present a challenge for parties involved in family planning research in Tanzania. The observed situation has been explained by the demand-side variables such as socioeconomic characteristics and cultural values that maintain the demand for large families. A small, but growing body of research is examining the effect of supply-side factors such as quality of care of family planning services on the demand for contraceptives. This paper analyses the demand and supply factors determining contraceptive use in Tanzania using the Tanzania Service Availability Survey (1996) and the Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey (1996) data sets. The results show that access to family planning services and quality of care of services are important determinants of contraceptive use in Tanzania even after controlling for demand-side factors.

Journal of Biosocial Science 2007, Vol. 39, Issue 1, pp. 1-26

Available from: Cambridge University Press

Conflict Management Over Water Rights in Ethiopia

The Case of the Woiyto Valley in Southern Ethiopia

Yacob Arsano, 2002

In: Baechler G, Spillmann KR, Suliman M. editors. 2002. Transformation of Resource Conflicts: Approach and Instruments. Bern: Peter Lang, pp 451-476.

Order from: Peter Lang Publishing Group

Ethiopia and the Eastern Nile Basin

Yacob Arsano, Imeru Tamrat, 2005

Ethiopia is the main source of the Nile River, and the country urgently needs water for irrigation and hydro-electric power development. To-date, however, Ethiopia is the country in the Eastern Nile basin that uses the least amount of water from the Nile run-off. There is no basin-wide agreement on the utilization and management of the water resources of the Nile Basin. Unilateral planning and implementation approaches have hindered the possibilities of cooperation and coordinated development. On the national level, economic and institutional capacities are also limited. Past initiatives as well as the current Nile Basin Initiative (NBI) are outlined regarding how far these dilemmas are dealt with. The paper ends with suggestions on how to deal with open questions and lessons learned from the ongoing NBI process.

Aquatic Sciences 2005, (67): pp. 15-27.

Available for purchase from: SpringerLink

Transformation of Resource Conflicts and the Case of Woito River Valley in Southern Ethiopia

Yacob Arsano, Günther Bächler, 2002

In: Flury M, Geiser U. 2002. Local Environmental Management in a North-South Perspective. Issues of Participation and Knowledge Management. vdf Hochschulverlag Zurich & IOS Press Amsterdam, pp. 91-108

Order from: vdf Hochschulverlag Zurich

Biennial Report 2007 / 2008. Joint Area of Case Studies Central Asia (JACS CAS

Mira Arynova, Daniel Maselli, 2009

Analysis of the effectiveness of water use in the irrigation system of the Sokuluk River Basin, Chui Valley, Kyrgyzstan

Bakyt Askaraliev, 2006

In Russian

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Title: Water discharge stabilizer for irrigation systems of the Sokuluk river basin

Bakyt Askaraliev, Viktor Bilenko, G. Frolova, Natalia Ivanova, 2007

Bulletin of Kyrgyz Agrarian University 1(7):263-267

La richesse génétique du Sud convoitée par le Nord

L’exemple du Pérou

Claude Auroi, Marc Galvin, 2006

"De plus en plus souvent, les groupes pharmaceutiques et agroalimentaires font valoir des licences sur certaines propriétés d’espèces animales et végétales, s’assurant ainsi des droits de distribution lucratifs. En même temps, les pays en développement, «génétiquement riches», revendiquent une juste répartition des bénéfices. Cette évolution peut être illustrée par l’exemple du Pérou."

Hotspot 2006, No. 14, pp. 6-7

Download from: Swiss Academy of Science

Bovine tuberculosis: an old disease but a new threat to Africa

Wuhib Y. Ayele, S.D. Neill, I. Pavlik, Mitchell G. Weiss, Jakob Zinsstag, 2004

"Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is a disease characterised by progressive development of specific granulomatous le-sions or tubercles in lung tissue, lymph nodes or other organs. Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of the disease. Bovine species, including bison and buffaloes, are susceptible to the disease, but nearly all warm-blooded animals can be affected. All species are not equally susceptible to the disease; some are spill-over (end) hosts and others maintenance hosts. In Africa, bovine TB primarily affects cattle; however, infection in other farm and domestic animals, such as sheep, goats, pigs, dogs and cats, is not uncommon. Wild ruminants and carnivores are also affected and are the natural reservoirs of the infectious agent in the wild. Man is also susceptible to the disease, the highest risk groups being individuals with concomitant HIV/AIDS infection. In Africa, human TB is widely known to be caused by M. tuberculosis; however, an unknown proportion of cases are due to M. bovis. This infection in humans is underreported as a result of the diagnostic limitations of many laboratories in distinguishing M. bovis from M. tuberculosis. None of the national reports submitted to the OIE and WHO by African member states mention the importance of M. bovis in human TB cases. Consumption of unpasteurised milk and poorly heat-treated meat and close contact with infected animals represent the main sources of infection for humans. This review attempts to examine the impact of bovine TB on the health of animals and humans."

The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 2004, Vol. 8, No. 8, pp. 924-937(14)

Freely available from: Ingentaconnect

Die Slum-Tour als touristische Aneignungspraxis: Kulturvermittlung durch eine Exkursion

Norman Backhaus, 2012

Zeitschrift fu?r Tourismuswissenschaft 4(2):181–195.

The look of and on sustainable development: The role of images in participation processes to establish protected areas

Norman Backhaus, Urs Müller, Ulrike Müller-Böker, 2008

Sustainable development is not a process that simply happens, rather it has to be achieved and agreed upon by the voters. In both case study areas - the UNESCO Biosphere Entlebuch and the World Heritage Site (WHS) Jungfrau-Aletsch-Bietschhorn - voters and parish councils have decided in polls to financially contribute to the establishment and management of protected areas that are committed to sustainable development. In this paper we focus on the role that images played in this process and we analyze the potential appropriations of space and use of the regions' resources that are depicted. Results show that there are differences between inside and outside views as well as between the case study areas.

In: Siegrist D, Clivaz C, Hunziker M, Iten S, editors. Visitor Management in Nature-based Tourism: Strategies and Success Factors for Recreational and Protected Areas. Rapperswil: Institute for Landscape and Open Space, HSR University of Applied Sciences Rapperswil, pp. 33-45.

To order this publication, please contact the Institute for Landscape and Open Space: ilf@hsr.ch

What does sustainable development look like? Visions of two Swiss UNESCO regions.

Norman Backhaus, Urs Müller, 2006

The establishment of a nature reserve usually means a change of access to the area and its resources. Therefore, anticipated constraints for the use of resources can lead to opposition against nature conservation projects. Hence, bottom up initiated and broadly accepted conservation areas are rare, because different actors or stakeholders have different mental images about what their region should look like. Such images are expressed in written texts and visual publications. Visual images that have an influence on people’s “images in the head” play an important role for the structuration of landscape and the potential of appropriation of space. This includes the landscape’s potential for tourism, production, and formation as a living space. People’s actions are grounded in the meanings they attribute to things. These meanings are constructions and elements of social structures that are widely shared.

In: Siegrist D, Clivaz C, Hunziker M, Iten S, editors. Exploring the Nature of Management. Rapperswil, pp. 272-274.

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Worlds of difference, different worlds: geographies of globalization

Norman Backhaus, Christan Berndt, Benedikt Korf, Ulrike Müller-Böker, 2012

This article introduces current human geography research at the Department of Geography in Zurich around the notion of geographies of globalization. After mapping out a conceptual landscape of geographies of globalization as worlds of difference, three collaborative research areas are introduced which share a commitment to north-south-relations and a concern for processes of uneven development and fragmentation: «People: Migration», «State: Frontier» and «Economy: Geographies of marketization». The first studies the multi local connections and social spaces of migrants, the second explores the intricate relationship between state, territory and the question of where «the state ends» and the third is concerned with the emergence of market orders and their uneven spatial and social expansion.

Keywords: globalization, flat ontology, migration, frontier, marketization.

Backhaus N, Berndt C, Korf B, Müller-Böker U. 2012. Worlds of difference, different worlds: geographies of globalization. Geographica Helvetica 67(1-2):77-84.

Available here: Geographica Helvetica

Klassenbewusste Einbunkerung für jeden was

Geschlossene Viertel in San Salvador

Sonia Baires, 2005

Los barrios cerrados en el AMSS: una nueva forma de segregación residencial en la era de la globalización

Revista ILA 2005, 288:XII-XIII

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Violencia urbana y recuperación de espacios públicos. El caso del AMSS

Sonia Baires, 2004

In Spanish

In: V.V. Aportes para la convivencia y la seguridad ciudadana. UNDP. San Salvador C.A.

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What Drives Land Cover Change in Eastern Escarpment of Wello, Ethiopia?

Amare Bantider, Hans Hurni, Gete Zeleke, 2008

Multiple factors, many operating concomitantly and as a chain of logical causation, were found responsible for non-linear land cover changes along the Eastern Escarpment of Wello (EEW). Unlike elsewhere, population in this region did not turn out to be an important factor in driving land use and land cover change (LULCC); however, it made its own contribution to these changes.

Poster presented at the International Conference on Research for Development (ICRD), National Centre of Competence in Research NCCR North-South, University of Bern. 02-04 July 2008, Bern.

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Patterns and politics of migration in South Asia

Sanjay Barbora, Karin Astrid Siegmann, Susan Thieme, 2010

Migration is an important social and historical reality in South Asia. In the past decade, migration from one country to another and internal migration (i.e. migration within a particular country) have assumed different dimensions
for people in the region. Contemporary research on migration is placed in a spectrum that ranges from exponents of economic benefits at one end, to those who see migration as a security threat, at the other. This paper combines the work of three researchers and looks at the different political locations from which the South Asian subject is induced to move. It also discusses the economic and political implications that arise from these migration trajectories. Drawing on their research, the authors emphasise the need for understanding how migration is linked to a complex set of processes that reflect power relations in unequal societies.

In: Hurni H, Wiesmann U, editors; with an international group of co-editors. Global Change and Sustainable Development: A Synthesis of Regional Experiences from Research Partnerships. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, University of Bern, Vol. 5. Bern, Switzerland: Geographica Bernensia, pp. 313-328.

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Rethinking India’s Counter-insurgency Campaign in North-East

Sanjay Barbora, 2006

"The optimism generated by proponents of India’s “Look East” policy and tentative peace talks between armed opposition groups and the state would suggest that there has been a radical change in the government of India’s north-east policy. However, militarisation and ethnic confrontation continue to define the parameters of public policy in India’s north-east. Ethnic violence is accentuated by the existence of parallel political and administrative structures that undermine the rule of law. This article argues that the change in India’s north-east is contingent upon the government’s motivation to encourage transparency in governance and administration and to consciously move away from its existing reliance on archaic military solutions."

Economic and Political Weekly 2006, XLI(35), pp. 3805-3812

Available for purchase from: Economic and Political Weekly

Nationalizing Space: Cosmetic Federalism and the Politics of Development in Northeast India

Sanjib Baruah, 2003

"Until recently Arunachal Pradesh on India's Northeast frontier was relatively insulated from the processes associated with development. State institutions were barely present during the colonial era. In 1962, however, India and China fought a border war in this area: this war, along with signs of unrest among indigenous peoples in the neighbourhood, exposed India's vulnerabilities in the region. Since then, nationalizing this frontier space by extending the institutions of the state all the way into the international border region has become the thrust of Indian policy. The region's governmental infrastructure was fundamentally redesigned to put in place what can only be described as a cosmetic federal regional order with a number of small states dependent on the central government's largess and subject to monitoring by India's Home Ministry. The new regional order has put Arunachal firmly on a developmentalist track, which has enabled India to meet its national security goals, but at a significant cost to the region."

Development and Change 2003, 34(5), p. 915

Available from: Blackwell Synergy

Approche novatrice des vaccinations en santé publique et en médecine vétérinaire chez les pasteurs au Tchad

Expériences et coûts

Mahamat Béchir, Saada Daoud, Doumagoum Moto Daugla, Esther Schelling, Marcel Tanner, Kaspar Wyss, Jakob Zinsstag, 2004

This report describes a network of public health care workers, veterinarians and nomadic pastoralists that was set up in Chad to increase vaccination coverage to nomadic children and women who had rarely been vaccinated before. The objectives of the project were to provide human vaccination in conjunction with existing veterinary services, to evaluate the feasibility and limitations of such campaigns, to determine what other services could be provided concurrently, and to estimate the savings for public health care cases in comparison with carrying out vaccination separately. The joint vaccination campaign approach is innovative, appreciated by nomadic pastoralists and less expensive than separate vaccination. By using the mobility of veterinarians in remote zones far from health care facilities, vaccination can be provided to nomadic children and women in countries with limited resources.

Médecine Tropicale 2004, Vol. 64, No. 5, pp. 497-502

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Social services for mobile pastoralists: Cross-sector strategy based on "One Health"

Mahamat Béchir, M.A. Abdoulaye, Bassirou Bonfoh, Doumagoum Moto Daugla, Gilbert Fokou, H Kessely, Esther Schelling, Marcel Tanner, Jakob Zinsstag, 2012

Sociology Study 2(9):705–714.

Mapping Where the Poor Live. IFPRI 2020 FOCUS Briefs on the World's Poor and Hungry People

Todd Benson, Michael Epprecht, N. Minot, 2007

"Should I buy a cow or a TV?"

Reflections on the conceptual framework of the NCCR North-South based on a comparative study of international labour migration in Mexico, India and Kyrgyzstan

Christine Bichsel, Silvia Hostettler, Balz Strasser, 2005

International labour migration has become a strategy against poverty in many parts of the developing world. By remitting their earnings to the families they leave behind, migrant labourers have become a primary source of livelihoods for many of the world's poorest nations. The long-term consequences of this practice on local development are the subject of this study, based on reseach conducted in three rural communities in Mexico, India and Kyrgyzstan.

NCCR North-South Dialogue 2005

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In Search of Harmony: Repairing Infrastructure and Social Relations in the Ferghana Valley

Christine Bichsel, 2005

Central Asian Survey 2005, 24(1): pp. 53-66

Available for purchase from: Taylor & Francis

Natural resource institutions in transformation: The tragedy and glory of the private

Christine Bichsel, Gilbert Fokou, Asel Ibraimova, Ulan Kasymov, Bernd Steimann, Susan Thieme, 2009

The article focuses on continuity and change in natural resource institutions in post-Soviet Kyrgyzstan. Two main trends have characterised the management of water, agricultural land and pastures since the country became independent in 1991. First, while natural resources were collective and state-owned during the Soviet period, they are now being gradually privatised and passed into individual or group ownership. Second, by contrast with central administration under the Soviet regime, after independence natural resource management has been and is increasingly being decentralised to the community level. We suggest that these processes have created a new concept of the ‘private’, defined as clearly assigned property rights as opposed to ‘commons’, and individual or group ownership as opposed to ‘public’ ownership. We attempt here to analyse how privatisation and decentralisation have created new property relations and new forms of natural resource governance.

In: Hurni H, Wiesmann U, editors; with an international group of co-editors. Global Change and Sustainable Development: A Synthesis Regional Experiences from Research Partnerships. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, University of Bern, Vol. 5. Bern, Switzerland: Geographica Bernensia, pp 255-269.

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Natural resources in Kyrgyzstan

The tragedy and glory of the 'private'

Christine Bichsel, Gilbert Fokou, Asel Ibraimova, Ulan Kasymov, Bernd Steimann, Susan Thieme, 2008

Poster presented at the ICRD, International Conference on Research for Development. 2.-4.7.2008, Berne, Switzerland.

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Developing Gender, Transforming Development

Epistemic Shifts in Gender and Development Discourse over 30 Year

Sabin Bieri, 2006

In: Premchander S, Müller C, editors. 2006. Gender and Sustainable Development: Case Studies from NCCR North-South. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, Bern: Geographica Bernensia, pp. 57-85

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Waste-resource flows of short-lived goods in households of Santiago de Cuba

Claudia Binder, Hans-Joachim Mosler, 2006

"In this paper, we apply the method of material flow analysis to analyze the consumption and waste mass flows of short-lived goods and we provide first insights into the waste management behavior of households in Santiago de Cuba. The goods analyzed are glass, aluminum, organic material and PET. The necessary data were gathered in personal interviews with 1171 households using a standardized questionnaire. The questionnaire contained questions about socio-demographic variables, such as age, sex, education, income and occupation. The households were asked how many PET bottles, aluminum and glass containers they consume per month and how they dispose of the different kinds of garbage. [...]"

Resources, Conservation and Recycling 2006, Published online 2 October 2006

Available from: ScienceDirect

Die Bedeutung imaginativer Geographien im Kampf um "Gorkhaland"

Miriam Bishokarma, 2012

Keywords: Strategic imaginative geographies, Imaginative geographies, ethno-symbolic resources, ethnoscape, regionalisation, ethno-regional movements, India, Darjeeling, West Bengal

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The importance of place names in the search for ecosystem-like concepts in indigenous societies: An example from the Bolivian Andes

Sebastien Boillat, F Berkes, Stephan Rist, Elvira Serrano, 2012

Environmental Management 51(3):663–678.

Intermediate cities in Latin America

Risk and opportunities of coherent urban development

Jean-Claude Bolay, Adriana Rabinovich, 2004

"Urban agglomerations continue to be defined primarily by spatial and demographic criteria which signal their position within the domestic and international urban networks. We consider that these criteria are overly static, and lack indicators of both the potential inherent in medium-sized cities, and the risks they are prone to. On the occasion of a research action project conducted jointly with the Urban Management Program for Latin America and the Caribbean (PGU–ALC/HABITAT), we attempted to gain a deeper understanding of medium-sized cities in order to see more clearly what varied relations they entertain with their immediate or more distant environment. [...]"

Cities 2004, Vol. 21, No. 5, pp. 407–421

Available from: Science Direct

Neo-liberal Arguments, Technology and Public Institutions

Environmental, Economical and Social Problems in Cities of Argentina, Bolivia and Cuba

Jean-Claude Bolay, Andrea Catenazzi, Carlos Pleyán García, Yves Pedrazzini, Adriana Rabinovich, 2004

TRIALOG 2004, No. 80, pp. 41-44

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Pratiques urbaines et planification en Amérique Latine

Alternatives pour une gestion participative de l'habitat des pauvres en Bolivie

Jean-Claude Bolay, 2002

In: Dansereau F, Navez-Bouchanine F, editors. 2002. Gestion du développment urbain et stratégies résidentielles des habitants. Paris: L'Harmattan (Collection Villes et Entreprises)

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Slums and Urban Development

Questions on Society and Globalisation

Jean-Claude Bolay, 2006

"The slum is not only a manifestation of mismanaged urban planning in the countries of the South. The existence of slums worldwide is also a sign that the slum is a crucial element of contemporary urbanisation. This article will attempt to define this phenomenon and understand its causes. Adequate policy responses are then suggested. Without finding appropriate solutions to the housing problems of a majority of urban dwellers, public and private decision makers will not be able to meet the challenges of sustainable development."

The European Journal of Development Research 2006, Vol. 18, Issue 2, pp 284-298

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Urban Environment, Spatial Fragmentation and Social Segration in Latin America

Where does Innovation lie?

Jean-Claude Bolay, Andrea Catenazzi, Carlos Pleyán García, Yves Pedrazzini, Adriana Rabinovich, 2005

To ‘‘review the urban question’’ in terms of sustainable development, the premise is formulated that improving infrastructures, equipment and services to preserve the natural and built urban environment is costly and generates expenses of all kinds—at economic and social levels. Without the introduction of equalisation mechanisms, these expenses will increase inequalities between different parts of the urban population...

Habitat International 2005, Volume 29, Issue 4, pp. 627-645

Available online from: Science Direct

Waste collection and transportation at the community level in Ho Chi Minh City

A case study

Jean-Claude Bolay, Thi Lang Bui, Gian Tran Pham, Ngoc Du Thai Thi, 2002

In: Flury M, Geiser U. 2002. Local Environmental Management in a North-South Perspective. Issues of Participation and Knowledge Management. vdf Hochschulverlag Zurich & IOS Press Amsterdam.

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World globalisation, sustainable development and scientific cooperation

Jean-Claude Bolay, 2004

"Development-related questions have been raised periodically for over forty years. Development cooperation, in its turn, is also controversial, especially since its role is to make good intentions real, i.e. transform them into projects, programmes and other policy instruments generating investments that are much more pertinent than mere declarations of intent. Starting from an overview of the links between the profit-oriented trends of the globalisation process, and the non-profit aims pursued by the ''development cooperation world'', this article outlines the specific role that the scientific community plays or will have to play in international exchanges in order to steer the fundamental changes that contemporary societies are going through for the benefit of the greatest number."

The International Journal of Sustainable Development 2004, Vol. 7, No.2, pp. 99-120

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Quality and comparison of antenatal care in public and private providers in the United Republic of Tanzania

Christoph Boller, Deo Mtasiwa, Marcel Tanner, Kaspar Wyss, 2003

"Objective To compare the quality of public and private first-tier antenatal care services in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania, using defined criteria.
Methods Structural attributes of quality were assessed through a checklist, and process attributes, including interpersonal and technical aspects, through observation and exit interviews. A total of 16 health care providers, and 166 women in the public and 188 in the private sector, were selected by systematic random sampling for inclusion in the study. Quality was measured against national standards, and an overall score calculated for the different aspects to permit comparison.
Findings The results showed that both public and private providers were reasonably good with regard to the structural and interpersonal aspects of quality of care. However, both were poor when it came to technical aspects of quality. For example, guidelines for dispensing prophylactic drugs against anaemia or malaria were not respected, and diagnostic examinations for the assessment of gestation, anaemia, malaria or urine infection were frequently not performed. In all aspects, private providers were significantly better than public ones.
Conclusion Approaches to improving quality of care should emerge progressively as a result of regular quality assessments. Changes should be introduced using an incremental approach addressing few improvements at a time, while ensuring participation in, and ownership of, every aspect of the strategy by health personnel, health planners and managers and also the community."

Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2003, Vol. 81, Number 2, pp. 116-122

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Access to Natural Resources and the Question of Autochthony in West Africa

Bassirou Bonfoh, Jerome Chenal, Gilbert Fokou, Mathieu Gasparini, Henri-Michel Yéré, 2008

Poster presented at the International Conference on Research for Development (ICRD). 2-4 July 2008, Berne, Switzerland.

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Effect of washing and disinfecting containers on the microbiological quality of fresh milk sold in Bamako (Mali)

Bassirou Bonfoh, Idriss O. Alfaroukh, A. Fané, Zakaria Farah, J. Nicolet, C. Roth, Cheikh F. Simbé, A.N. Traoré, Jakob Zinsstag, 2006

"The present study aimed to improve the microbiological quality of the milk, from the cow’s udder to the selling point by container washing and disinfecting. The total counts (TC), Enterobacteriaceae counts (EBC) were used as quality indicators. [...] The study suggests that in milk production area, besides udder infection and water quality, hygiene behaviour with respect to hand washing, container’s cleaning and disinfection are the key areas that remain of relevance to milk hygiene intervention."

Food Control 2006, Vol. 17, Issue 2, pp. 153-161

Available from: ScienceDirect

Extension du modèle de développement laitier en milieu rural.

Commune Rurale de Cinzana (Régionde Ségou). Complex Laitier comme réponse à un besoin des agro-pasteurs.

Bassirou Bonfoh, D. Diallo, M. Dicko, A. Fané, Gilbert Fokou, D. Kouyaté, 2006

Institutional Frameworks for NRM and Access to Basic Services in the Sahel

Bassirou Bonfoh, Gilbert Fokou, Moustapha Ould Taleb, Jakob Zinsstag, 2008

Poster presented at the International Conference on Research for Development (ICRD). 2-4 July 2008, Berne, Switzerland.

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L' hygiène et la qualité sanitaire du lait et des produits laitiers.

Implications en santé publique.

Bassirou Bonfoh, M. Hetzel, C. Roth, P. Steinmann, A. Wasem, Jakob Zinsstag, 2006

Operational plan for small scale milk producers in peri-urban of Bamako (Mali)

Bassirou Bonfoh, Idriss O. Alfaroukh, P. Ankers, M. Diabaté, Zakaria Farah, A. Sall, S. Tembely, 2006

Journal of Sahelian Studies and Research (12): 7-25.

Raw milk composition of Malian Zebu cows (Bos indicus) raised under traditional system

Bassirou Bonfoh, Riccardo Aebi, Idriss O. Alfaroukh, René Badertscher, Marius Collomb, Zakaria Farah, Jacques Meyer, Brita Rehberger, Cheikh F. Simbé, Jakob Zinsstag, 2005

Milk from Malian Zebu cows was analysed during the dry and hot season (March–June) in order to assess its composition and the components variation according to the presence of subclinical mastitis and supplementary feeding. The Zebu cow milk (n=30) was composed of 8 g/kg ash, 43 g/kg fat, 48 g/kg lactosemonohydrate, 37 g/kg proteins and 134 g/kg total solids. One-third of the cows tested positive to subclinical mastitis (white blood cell count >350,000/mL). Milk components were significantly affected by the somatic cell count (decrease of lactosemonohydrate, increase of fat and total solids P<0.01). Supplementation of the diet of Zebu cows with low quantity of pasture straw significantly and positively affected milk composition. The fatty acids were composed of a high proportion of polyunsaturated, long-chain fatty acids (oleic acid). This indicates that Zebu cows at this period of the year mobilize body fat for milk production because of the energy deficit in their diet. Lack of supplementary feeding of the Zebu cows and subclinical mastitis appeared to be main constraints in the extensive livestock system in Mali.

Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 2005, Vol. 18(1), pp. 29-38

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NGOs in Conflict Prevention: Experiences from the Water Sector in Ethiopia

Rea Bonzi, 2006

While development cooperation can cause or exacerbate conflicts, withholding aid is not the solution. The issue is how to provide aid in a manner that prevents conflict, so as to achieve sustainable peace. This Practical Note examines how NGOs have prevented and managed conflicts arising from water projects in Ethiopia.

Development in Practice 2006, 16(2)

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The Tajik Pamirs: High mountain areas: a wildlife habitat

Cristina Boschi, Andrea Haslinger, Riccarda Lüthi , Bernhard Nievergelt, 2003

The Tajik Pamirs: Challenges of Sustainable Development in an Isolated Mountain Region: The present publication provides a summary of the outcomes of the Pamir Strategy Project (PSP). It portrays life in the Pamirs, along with development challenges and options, and presents practical and participatory approaches that can lead to sustainable mountain development. In addition, this publication outlines the lessons learnt within the PSP by presenting and evaluationg methods and apporaches such as participatory village studies, multi-level stakeholder workshops for strategy development, knowledge generation processes, and Geographic Information Systmes as decision support tools for sustainable mountain development.

In: Breu T, and Hurni H, editors. The Tajik Pamirs. Challenges of Sustainable Development in an Isolated Mountain Region. Bern: Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), University of Bern, pp 28-34.

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"In the city, everybody only cares for himself"

Social relations and illness in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire

Rita Bossart, 2003

"Various studies on African solidarity, survival strategies and the 'therapy man agement group' [J. M. Janzen (1978) The Quest for Therapy in Lower Zaire, Berkeley, Los Angeles & London: University of California Press] have suggested that institutionalized relationships in the form of networks or groups afford an individual access to resources, also in case of illness. My study reconsiders these arguments in ethnographic research about everyday illness management. It focuses on a heterogeneous urban neighbourhood in Abidjan and analyses who offers help to whom, and what kind of help people offer to one another. The findings show that social networks play an important but at the same time restricted role in illness management. The main source of assistance in response to affliction is household members. Apart from emotional and moral support, relatives living outside the household and non-kin play only a minor role. The social network offers help only sporadically, and very often the sick person has to ask friends and family several times before she or he receives financial or practical support. The emphasis given to social networks in the existing literature is often overestimated, at least in the case of illness. These findings implicate the importance of strengthening informal and formal security systems, especially in an urban context of economic hardship and political insecurity."

Anthropology & Medicine 2003, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 343-359

Available from: Informaworld

Changing land rights means changing society: The sociopolitical effects of agrarian reforms under the government of Evo Morales

Patrick Bottazzi, Stephan Rist, 2012

Journal of Agrarian Change 12(4):528–551.

Citoyenneté "autochtone" et réformes environnementales en Amazonie bolivienne

Patrick Bottazzi, Marc Hufty, 2005

L’objectif de cette communication est de nous questionner sur les causes et la nature des changements sociopolitiques encourus ces dernières années dans les sociétés d’Amazonie bolivienne, en présentant une approche, quelques données contextuelles et une brève étude de cas : la Réserve de Biosphère et Territoire Indigène Pilón Lajas.

Revue Lazos 2005, No. 7

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On the road through the Bolivian Amazon: A multi-level land governance analysis of deforestation

Patrick Bottazzi, Hy Dao, 2012

Studies show that collective property rights are more flexible than individual rights and improve sustainable forest management. Our case study in Bolivia (Beni department) confirms this, but shows that collective rights were granted in areas unfavourable to intensive land use. Collectively held land in Andean settlements appears less affected by deforestation than individually held land. Historical analysis of the region shows that the distribution of property rights results from political processes based on economic, spatial, and environmental strategies defined by multiple stakeholders. Collective titles were distributed to remote communities with less productive potential. Land rights are thus a secondary factor in local forest cover change and result from political compromises based on population, accessibility, environmental perceptions, and expected production/extraction incomes.

Bottazzi P, Dao H. Accepted. On the road through the Bolivian Amazon: A multi-level land governance analysis of deforestation. Land Use Policy 30(1):137–146. Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264837712000440

Agroforestry species of the Bolivian Andes: An integrated assessment of ecological, economic and socio-cultural plant values

Regine Brandt, Isabell Hensen, JC Mariscal Castro , Stephan Rist, H Zimmermann, 2012

Agroforestry Systems 86(1)1–16.

Knowledge for Sustainable Development in the Tajik Pamir Mountains

Thomas Breu, Hans Hurni, Daniel Maselli, 2005

The paper presents the results of a multi-year baseline study project in which 10 sectors ranging from agriculture to natural hazards were assessed by a transdisciplinary Swiss–Tajik research team. This knowledge base was enhanced in a development strategy workshop that brought together stakeholders from the local to the international levels. The methodology applied was found appropriate to initiate a broad reflection and negotiation process among various stakeholder groups, leading to a joint identification of possible measures to be taken. Knowledge—and its enhancement through the involvement of all stakeholder levels—appeared to be an effective carrier of innovation and changes of attitudes, thus containing the potential to effectively contribute to sustainable development in marginalized and resource-poor mountain areas.

Mountain Research and Development 2005, Volume 25, Issue 2, pp. 139–146

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Spatial Environmental Risk Modelling in the Pamir-Alai Mountains

Application of a fuzzy-logic based GIS approach

Thomas Breu, 2007

Proceedings of the International Disaster Reduction Conference Conference (IDRC), 27 August to 1 September 2006, Swiss Federal Research Institute, Davos, Switzerland. pp. 705-708.

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The Tajik Pamirs: Extreme environmental conditions in a breathtaking landscape

Thomas Breu, Hans Hurni, 2003

The Tajik Pamirs: Challenges of Sustainable Development in an Isolated Mountain Region: The present publication provides a summary of the outcomes of the Pamir Strategy Project (PSP). It portrays life in the Pamirs, along with development challenges and options, and presents practical and participatory approaches that can lead to sustainable mountain development. In addition, this publication outlines the lessons learnt within the PSP by presenting and evaluationg methods and apporaches such as participatory village studies, multi-level stakeholder workshops for strategy development, knowledge generation processes, and Geographic Information Systmes as decision support tools for sustainable mountain development.

In: Breu T, and Hurni H, editors. The Tajik Pamirs. Challenges of Sustainable Development in an Isolated Mountain Region. Bern: Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), University of Bern, pp 8-11.

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The Tajik Pamirs: Negotiating strategy elements for sustainable development

Thomas Breu, Hans Hurni, 2003

The Tajik Pamirs: Challenges of Sustainable Development in an Isolated Mountain Region: The present publication provides a summary of the outcomes of the Pamir Strategy Project (PSP). It portrays life in the Pamirs, along with development challenges and options, and presents practical and participatory approaches that can lead to sustainable mountain development. In addition, this publication outlines the lessons learnt within the PSP by presenting and evaluationg methods and apporaches such as participatory village studies, multi-level stakeholder workshops for strategy development, knowledge generation processes, and Geographic Information Systmes as decision support tools for sustainable mountain development.

In: Breu T, and Hurni H, editors. The Tajik Pamirs. Challenges of Sustainable Development in an Isolated Mountain Region. Bern: Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), University of Bern, pp 56-63.

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The Tajik Pamirs: The search for new education and health systems

Thomas Breu, Hans Hurni, 2003

The Tajik Pamirs: Challenges of Sustainable Development in an Isolated Mountain Region: The present publication provides a summary of the outcomes of the Pamir Strategy Project (PSP). It portrays life in the Pamirs, along with development challenges and options, and presents practical and participatory approaches that can lead to sustainable mountain development. In addition, this publication outlines the lessons learnt within the PSP by presenting and evaluationg methods and apporaches such as participatory village studies, multi-level stakeholder workshops for strategy development, knowledge generation processes, and Geographic Information Systmes as decision support tools for sustainable mountain development.

In: Breu T, and Hurni H, editors. The Tajik Pamirs. Challenges of Sustainable Development in an Isolated Mountain Region. Bern: Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), University of Bern, pp 47-48.

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The Tajik Pamirs: Towards a new economy

Thomas Breu, Hans Hurni, 2003

The Tajik Pamirs: Challenges of Sustainable Development in an Isolated Mountain Region: The present publication provides a summary of the outcomes of the Pamir Strategy Project (PSP). It portrays life in the Pamirs, along with development challenges and options, and presents practical and participatory approaches that can lead to sustainable mountain development. In addition, this publication outlines the lessons learnt within the PSP by presenting and evaluationg methods and apporaches such as participatory village studies, multi-level stakeholder workshops for strategy development, knowledge generation processes, and Geographic Information Systmes as decision support tools for sustainable mountain development.

In: Breu T, and Hurni H, editors. The Tajik Pamirs. Challenges of Sustainable Development in an Isolated Mountain Region. Bern: Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), University of Bern, pp 18-19.

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The Tajik Pamirs: Towards pluralism: Challenges for governance and civil society

Thomas Breu, Hans Hurni, 2003

The Tajik Pamirs: Challenges of Sustainable Development in an Isolated Mountain Region: The present publication provides a summary of the outcomes of the Pamir Strategy Project (PSP). It portrays life in the Pamirs, along with development challenges and options, and presents practical and participatory approaches that can lead to sustainable mountain development. In addition, this publication outlines the lessons learnt within the PSP by presenting and evaluationg methods and apporaches such as participatory village studies, multi-level stakeholder workshops for strategy development, knowledge generation processes, and Geographic Information Systmes as decision support tools for sustainable mountain development.

In: Breu T, and Hurni H, editors. The Tajik Pamirs. Challenges of Sustainable Development in an Isolated Mountain Region. Bern: Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), University of Bern, pp 45-46.

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The Tajik Pamirs: Valley agriculture in the Western Pamirs

Thomas Breu, Hans Hurni, 2003

The Tajik Pamirs: Challenges of Sustainable Development in an Isolated Mountain Region: The present publication provides a summary of the outcomes of the Pamir Strategy Project (PSP). It portrays life in the Pamirs, along with development challenges and options, and presents practical and participatory approaches that can lead to sustainable mountain development. In addition, this publication outlines the lessons learnt within the PSP by presenting and evaluationg methods and apporaches such as participatory village studies, multi-level stakeholder workshops for strategy development, knowledge generation processes, and Geographic Information Systmes as decision support tools for sustainable mountain development.

In: Breu T, and Hurni H, editors. The Tajik Pamirs. Challenges of Sustainable Development in an Isolated Mountain Region. Bern: Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), University of Bern, pp 20-21.

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Use of disability adjusted life years in the estimation of the disease burden of Echinococcosis for a high endemic region of the Tibetan plateau

CM Budke, W Qian, J Qiu, P Torgerson, Jakob Zinsstag, 2004

American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 71(1):56-64

Patrimonio urbano y vivienda social en el centro de Buenos Aires: nuevas perspectivas y conflictos

E Cañellas, V Colella, N Da Representaçao, 2008

In: Torti C, Piovani J, editors. Desafíos para el conocimiento social” Actas-CD-ROM. La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, ISBN:978-950-34-0514-7.

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Effects of landscape segregation on livelihood vulnerability: Moving from extensive shifting cultivation to rotational agriculture and natural forests in northern Laos

JC Castella, J Bourgoin, YR Fitriana, Andreas Heinimann, Conny Hett, G Lestrelin, JL Pfund, 2013

Human Ecology 41(1):63–76.

Garbage, work and society

Héctor Castillo Berthier, 2003

"This paper reviews the contribution of the book ‘The Garbage Society: Caciquismo in Mexico City’; written 20 years ago when no official statistics on garbage production were available, to the development of sustainable waste management practice in Mexico. At that time public information was extremely difficult to obtain and environmental pollution was not regarded as an important research area for many disciplines, including social sciences. The objective of ‘The Garbage Society’ was to provide a detailed description of all the stages involved in garbage disposal from the time when it is discarded, until it resurfaces in recycled products. This process can be summarized as Garbage+Working FORCE=Merchandise. The garbage problem in Mexico City is an accurate reflection of the Mexican political system that has traditionally supported corporatism in which caciques (a person who exercises absolute power over a group) play a key role. Current data are used to verify the events of that first study and through reflection on the historical process, to indicate the requirements for on-going research as a means of clarifying and categorizing the inherent problems associated with sustainable waste management in Mexico."

Resources, Conservation & Recycling 2003, Volume 39, Issue 3, Pages 193-210

Available from: ScienceDirect

Los Mercados Públicos de la Ciudad de México

Características, Problemas y ¿soluciones?

Héctor Castillo Berthier, 2003

In: Torres Salcido G. editor. 2003. Políticas de abasto alimentario. Alternativas para el Distrito Federal y su zona metropolitana. Casa Juan Pablos / unam-Facultad de Ciencias Políticas y Sociales. pp. 187-194

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L´émergence du social dans la privatisation de l´eau à Buenos Aires

Andrea Catenazzi, 2008

In: Bouchanine F, Rabinovich A, editors. Sciences sociales et prise en compte du social dans les politiques urbaines: connaissances pour l’action, connaissances dans l’action. submitted

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La citoyenneté: un outil analytique pour l'étude de la gouvernance

Sandra Cavaliere, Isabelle Hillenkamp-Buscail, Sabine Hoffmann, 2007

iuéd Working Paper 2007, Notes et travaux, No. 79.

Available from: The Graduate Institute

Repertorios en fábrica

La experiencia de recuperación fabril en Argentina, 2000-2006

Sandra Cavaliere, Amalia Gracia, 2007

"El trabajo interpreta el fenómeno de recuperación fabril como parte del nuevo repertorio de acción colectiva en Argentina. Estudia el Movimiento Nacional de Fábricas Recuperadas por sus Trabajadores con el análisis preliminar de una investigación en terreno realizada entre marzo de 2005 y junio de 2006 en ciudad y provincia de Buenos Aires. Muestra cómo se enfrentaron los problemas laborales con los recursos disponibles y explora el horizonte de sentido en que estas circunstancias motivaron y justificaron las acciones. Así, el repertorio no sólo se concibe como un conjunto de medios para formular reclamos, sino también como una colección de sentidos que aparece relacionalmente en la lucha. Se espera aportar al estudio de la constitución de nuevos actores colectivos al ilustrar los mecanismos de un fenómeno que internacionalmente es ubicado entre las formas posibles de lucha obrera del siglo XXI."

Estudios Sociólogicos 2007, 73, Vol. XXV, No. 1, pp. 155-186.

Available from: Estudios Sociológicos

Un enfoque institutionalista de la participacion politica : la ciudadania como instrumento analítico

Sandra Cavaliere, Lucia Rosales, 2006

Lógica de manejo del huerto familiar en el contexto del impacto modernizador en Tabasco, México

E Chávez-García, A Galmiche-Tejeda, Stephan Rist, 2012

Cuadernos de desarrollo rural 9(68):177–200.

Dakar la ville double

Jerome Chenal, Cheikh Samba Wade, 2009

In: Chenal J, Pedrazzini Y, Cissé G, Kaufmann V, éditeurs. Quelques rues d’Afrique. Observation et gestion de l’espace public à Abidjan, Dakar et Nouakchott. Lausanne : Les éditions du Lasur, pp 65-80.

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Africa’s development and its challenges in the health sector: medical, social and cultural dimensions

An illustration from West Africa

Guéladio Cissé, Marcel Tanner, 2007

In: Thomas Bearth, Barbara Becker, Rolf Kappel, Gesine Krüger, Roger Pfister, editors. 2007. Afrika im Wandel. vdf Hochschulverlag AG, ETH Zürich.

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Évaluation du projet d’appui aux structures locales de ramassages d’ordures et entretien des réseaux d’assainissement dans les villes de Bouaké et Korhogo

Guéladio Cissé, Alain Nicolas Betsi, Kouassi Dongo, G. R. Koffi, 2007

CARE, 35p.

Solid–liquid separation of faecal sludge using drying beds in Ghana

Implications for nutrient recycling in urban agriculture

Olufunke Cofie, S. Agbottah, F. Awuha, H. Esseku, Doulaye Kone, Agnes Montangero, Martin Strauss, 2006

This study investigated the possibility of recycling nutrients in human excreta and municipal solid waste for use in agriculture. It reports on the use of drying beds in separating solid and liquid fractions of faecal sludge (FS) so that the solids can be co-composted and the organic matter and part of the nutrients captured for urban agriculture...

Water Research 2006, 40:1, pp. 75-82

Available Online from: Science Direct

Répartition de la morbidité dans trois communautés nomades du Chari- Baguirmi et du Kanem, Tchad

Doumagoum Moto Daugla, Saada Daoud, Esther Schelling, Marcel Tanner, Jakob Zinsstag, 2004

Within the framework of an multidisciplinary research and action program, morbidity patterns were assessed in three nomadic communities in Chad. A total of 1092 women, men and children were interviewed and examined in the course of three surveys carried out by a physician during the dry and rainy season. Nomads reporting no health problems were rare. Tuberculosis was suspected in 4,6 % of adults after clinical examination and bronchopulmonary disorders in children less than five years of age. Febrile diarrhea was more prevalent during the wet season when access to clean drinking water was more difficult. Simple malaria was rarely diagnosed in Arabs during the dry season. In contrast simple malaria was frequent in Fulani who stay in the vicinity of Lake Chad during the dry period. Protein-energy malnutrition was observed in only 3 of 328 children younger than 15 years of age.

Médecine Tropicale 2004, Vol. 64, No. 5, pp. 469-473

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De problemas y oportunidades: intermediación urbana fronteriza en República Dominicana

Sobeida De Jesús-Cedano, Haroldo Dilla, 2005

Revista Mexicana de Sociología, No. 201

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Bolivia. Una frágil tregua

Manuel de la Fuente, 2005

El artículo examina la situación de enfrentamientos en la que se encuentra Bolivia. Enfrentamientos que están conociendo una frágil tregua que permitirá la confrontación electoral de diciembre del 2005. ¿Pero cómo se ha llegado a esta situación de empate social, que se traduce en una serie de conflictos? y ¿cuál podría ser el desenlace de este empate? Son algunas de las preguntas que el artículo trata de responder.

L'Ordinaire Latino-américain, Vues d’hier, enjeux d’aujourd’hui (avril-septembre 2005): N° 200-201

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Décentralisation, services publics et mobilisation populaire en Bolivie

Manuel de la Fuente, 2005

Les mécanismes participatifs qui accompagnent le processus de décentralisation en Bolivie ont permis un accès plus important, notamment en ce qui concerne les populations rurales, paysannes et indigènes, aux services publics de base. Cet exposé examine quand et dans quelles conditions les populations marginalisées et exclues depuis toujours, ont obtenu un meilleur accès aux services publics.

Par ailleurs, les lois liées au processus de décentralisation et d’autres lois connexes ont favorisé un renforcement des organisations populaires. Cet exposé s’efforce également de comprendre ces processus, en se demandant pourquoi une politique de décentralisation, conçue à partir de l'Etat et des organismes internationaux, a ce type de conséquences qui, bien évidemment, n'étaient pas désirées par l'Etat.

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Descentralisazon, Movimientos Regionales e Indigenas-Campesinos en Bolivia

Manuel de la Fuente, 2006

Este artículo consta de cinco partes. En las dos primeras presentamos algunos elementos históricos, que están relacionados con los procesos de centralización y descentralización. Procesos que fueron conflictivos, ya que toda redistribución del poder entre niveles de gobierno y entre regiones supone afectar intereses muy concretos. En esta rápida mirada de la historia hemos privilegiado el accionar del Gobierno, de los movimientos regionales y de los movimientos indígena-campesinos. Además, hemos tratado de colocar este accionar al interior del “modelo” de desarrollo que estaba vigente en cada momento histórico.

Texto publicado en RESTREPO, D. (editor), Historias de descentralización: transformación del régimen político y cambio en el modelo de desarrollo. América Latina, Europa y Estados Unidos, Bogota: Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas, 2006.

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La violence collective en Bolivie

Manuel de la Fuente, 2008

De la Fuente M. 2008. La violence collective en Bolivie. In: Corten A (dir.) La violence dans l'imaginaire latino-américain. Karthala/Presse de l'université du Québec, pp. 105-116.

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Clinical manifestations of human brucellosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis

AS Dean, L Crump, H Greter, Jan Hattendorf, Esther Schelling, Jakob Zinsstag, 2012

PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 6(12):e1929.

Global burden of human brucellosis: A systematic review of disease frequency

AS Dean, L Crump, H Greter, Esther Schelling, Jakob Zinsstag, 2012

PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 6(10):e1865.

Molecular Characterization and Drug Resistance Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Chad

Colette Diguimbaye, Franca Baggi, Markus Hilty, Hassane H. Mahamat, Richard Ngandolo, Gaby E. Pfyffer, Esther Schelling, Marcel Tanner, Jakob Zinsstag, 2006

"The molecular characterizations of the first 40 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Chad revealed a high proportion of isolates of the Cameroon family (33%), of which one isolate showed a monodrug resistance. In total, 9/33 (27%) isolates were resistant to isoniazid. The implications of these findings are discussed."

Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2006, Vol. 44, No. 4, pp. 1575-1577

Available from: Journal of Clinical Microbiology

Mycobacterium bovis Isolates from Tuberculous Lesions in Chadian Zebu Carcasses

Colette Diguimbaye, Franca Baggi, Glyn Hewinson, Markus Hilty, Hassane H. Mahamat, Richard Ngandolo, Gaby E. Pfyffer, Esther Schelling, Marcel Tanner, Jakob Zinsstag, 2006

"This slaughterhouse study in Chad shows higher proportions of Mycobacterium bovis isolates among Mbororo than Arabe zebu cattle. Spoligotyping shows a homogenetic population structure for M. bovis and lack of spacer 30, as were found in neighboring Cameroon and Nigeria. This finding suggests transborder and ongoing transmission between cattle."

Emerging Infectious Diseases 2006, Vol. 12, No. 5, pp.

Available online from: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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Species identification of non-tuberculous mycobacteria from humans and cattle of Chad

Colette Diguimbaye, Franca Baggi, Markus Hilty, Hassane H. Mahamat, Richard Ngandolo, Gaby E. Pfyffer, Esther Schelling, Marcel Tanner, Véronique Vincent, Jakob Zinsstag, 2006

"In Chad, during a study on tuberculosis in humans and cattle, 52 non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) strains were isolated. By means of INNO-LiPA, PRA-hsp65 amplification and sequencing of 16S rDNA, NTM species of 25/52 isolates were identified. M. fortuitum complex (8) was the most frequent species, followed by M. nonchromogenicum (4) and M. avium complex (4). PRA method could identify M. fortuitum 3rd variant among isolates derived from cattle specimens. This finding could confirm the existence of farcy in the Chadian cattle population as M. fortuitum 3rd variant and putitative pathogen M. farcinogenes can't be distinguished by the methods used in this study. Half of the NTM isolates could not be specified and we considered them as contaminants from the environment."

Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde 2006, Vol. 148, No. 5, pp. 251-256

Available to purchase from: Verlag Hans Huber

Cuba: los escenarios cambiantes de la gobernabilidad

Haroldo Dilla, 2002

In: Dilla H, editor. 2002. Los recursos de la gobernabilidad en la Cuenca del Caribe. Caracas: editorial Nueva Sociedad, pp 159-180.

Available from: Nueva Sociedad

Intercambio desigual y complejos urbanos binacionales en la frontera dominicana con Haití

Haroldo Dilla, 2004

"La frontera dominico-haitiana está marcada por profundas asimetrías y el predominio de una relación de intercambio desigual que supone la transferencia de valores desde Haití a República Dominicana. Las relaciones transfronterizas resumen esta contradictoria relación, pero al mismo tiempo constituyen la única forma de supervivencia para más de medio millón de haitianos que habitan la región. Este artículo discute la historia de esta relación y sus tendencias actuales, incluyendo la formación de regiones económicas y complejos urbanos binacionales. La debilidad de las políticas públicas de regulación y la agresiva acción de los actores del mercado generan un escenario muy contradictorio que pudiera conducir a conflictos por el uso de los recursos compartidos, la explotación de la fuerza de trabajo haitiana y la agitación de posiciones nacionalistas."

"The Dominican/Haitian border is signed by profound asymmetries and the predominance of a relation of uneven exchange in benefit of Dominican Republic. Transborder relations summary this contradictory relation, but at the same time constitute the only form of survival for more than half million of Haitians that inhabit the region. This article discusses the history of this relation and its present tendencies, including the formation of economic regions and urban binational systems. The weakness of regulatory public policies and the aggressive action of the market generate a very contradictory setting that could lead to conflicts by the use of shared natural resources, the exploitation of the Haitian labour force, and the agitation of nationalist positions."

Revista Estudios Fronterizos 2004, Vol. 5, No. 9, pp. 35-58

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Larval Actors, Uncertain Scenarios and Cryptic Scripts

Where is Cuban Society Headed?

Haroldo Dilla, 2005

In: Tulchin JS, Bobea L, Espina Prieto MP, Hernández R, Elizabeth Bryan E, 2005. Changes in Cuban Society since the Nineties. Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, pp. 35-51

Download PDF from the Wilson Center: English version / Spanish version

República Dominicana y Haití

Entre el peligro supuesto y el beneficio tangible

Haroldo Dilla, 2004

"A lo largo de décadas de coexistencia en una misma isla, Haití y República Dominicana han construido una fuerte relación de interdependencia, que en la actualidad opera como una subordinación creciente y fragmentada del e spacio haitiano a la economía capitalista dominicana, y un potencial surgimiento de regiones económicas binacionales en función de la acumulación global. La construcción ideológica racista antihaitiana en República Dominicana es también un ingrediente activo de esa relación. Para los sectores políticos e intelectuales democráticos de ambos países esto plantea un reto que solo podrán superar a partir de la crítica de las relaciones objetivas entre sus sociedades. Invito al lector a leer cuidadosamente el siguiente párrafo: La desnacionalización de Santo Domingo, persistentemente realizada desde hace más de un siglo por el comercio con lo peor de la población haitiana, ha hecho progresos preocupantes. Nuestro origen racial y tradición de pueblo hispánico no nos deben impedir reconocer que la nacionalidad se halla en peligro de desintegrarse. La influencia de Haití ha corrompido la fibra sagrada de la nacionalidad. La vecindad de Haití ha sido y sigue siendo el principal problema de la República Dominicana. Entre el peligro supuesto y el beneficio tangible."

Nueva Sociedad 2004, No. 192

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The Tajik Pamirs: Livelihoods in rural areas

Michael Domeisen, 2003

The Tajik Pamirs: Challenges of Sustainable Development in an Isolated Mountain Region: The present publication provides a summary of the outcomes of the Pamir Strategy Project (PSP). It portrays life in the Pamirs, along with development challenges and options, and presents practical and participatory approaches that can lead to sustainable mountain development. In addition, this publication outlines the lessons learnt within the PSP by presenting and evaluationg methods and apporaches such as participatory village studies, multi-level stakeholder workshops for strategy development, knowledge generation processes, and Geographic Information Systmes as decision support tools for sustainable mountain development.

In: Breu T, and Hurni H, editors. The Tajik Pamirs. Challenges of Sustainable Development in an Isolated Mountain Region. Bern: Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), University of Bern, pp 39-44.

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Analyse de la situation de l’environnement sanitaire des quartiers défavorisés dans le tissu urbain de Yopougon a Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire

Kouassi Dongo, Jean Biémi , Guéladio Cissé, Fernand Koffi Kouamé, Brama Koné, Marcel Tanner, 2009

The integration into a Geographical information system (GIS) of multi-source data from QUICKBIRD imagery, ancilliary data and the results from socio-environmental investigations alowed to analyse the sanitary environment of 6 precarious settlements located along an open and exposed drainage channel, in Yopougon (Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire). The observatory of the sanitary environment of these deprivileged areas were conducted through analysis and mapping of main factors influencing the life quality of the populations. The spatial sharpness of QUICKBIRD imagery contributed to update the land use/land cover map. Analysis of various factors witch characterise the sanitary environment reveals many insufficiences as regards the management of the sanitation system of the settlements, thus exposing the populations to illness related to sanitation like malaria and diarrhoea. The findings will permit planing appropriate measurements to overcome sanitation problems in these précarious areas.

In: VertigO – La revue en sciences de l'environnement 8(3).

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Exposition environnementale à des déchets contenant du mercaptan, des hydrocarbures aromatiques et de l'hydrogène sulfuré (Abidjan)

Kouassi Dongo, Jean Biemi, Guéladio Cissé, Blaise Koné, Marcel Tanner, I. Tiembré, Jakob Zinsstag, 2009

Environnement, Risques & Santé 8(6):519-527.

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Improving urban drainage in Abidjan Côte d’Ivoire

Kouassi Dongo, Jean Biémi , Guéladio Cissé, David Dumoulin, Marcel Tanner, 2007

Tropical humid climates of sub-Saharan Africa with a high level of variability build a challenge for hygienic models used in urban drainage. Based on a probabilistic and stochastic approach,this work optimised and designed models which best simulate tropical downpours and improved calculations related to urban drainage in Abidjan and in other urban settings with similar climatic conditions.

In: African Journal of Science and Technology. Science and Engineering Series Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 8 - 16.

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Optimizing Montana’s model to permit urban drainage in humid tropical environment: the case of Abidjan (Côte d’Ivoire)

Kouassi Dongo, Jean Biémi , Guéladio Cissé, Métangbo Diomandé, Marcel Tanner, 2005

In sub-Saharan Africa, the "hygienic" model used in urban drainage is faced with constraints in humid tropical environment, subjected to a high level of climatic variability. In Côte d’Ivoire adapting Montana's rain model is not satisfactory for certain time slots whereas this model includes the Caquot's rate-of-flow model used in urban
drainage. This work aims at optimizing and designing models which best simulate tropical downpours and help in calculations relating to urban drainage in Abidjan and elsewhere.

In: 10th International Conference on Urban Drainage, Copenhagen/Denmark, 21-26 August 2005.

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Urban agriculture and Anopheles habitats in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Stefan Dongus, Marcia C de Castro, Axel W. Drescher, Ulrike Fillinger, Laura Gosoniu, Khadija Kannady, Gerry F. Killeen, Hassan Mshinda, Deo Mtasiwa, Dickson Nyika, Marcel Tanner, 2009

A survey of agricultural areas combined with routinely monitored mosquito larval information was conducted in urban Dar es Salaam to investigate how agricultural and geographical features may influence the presence of Anopholes larvae.

Dongus S et al. 2009. Urban agriculture and Anopholes habitats in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Geospatial Health 3(2):189-210.

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Decentralised Composting in Developing Countries

A User's Manual

Silke Drescher, Iftekhar Enayetullah, MAD. Singha, Christian Zurbruegg, 2006

Les politiques de conservation de la nature au cœur de l’internationalisation et de la convergence des ordres politiques

David Dumoulin, 2005

Numéro Spécial de la Revue de la CEPAL, Amérique latine 2005, CEPAL-IHEAL, Santiago du Chili, mai 2005.

ONG transnationales et experts dans le débat démocratique

Bioprospection et savoir indigène au Mexique

David Dumoulin, Jean Foyer, 2004

"[...] La bioprospection est une de ces questions qui est venue sur le devant de la scène dans la plupart des pays latino-américains à la fin des années 1990, même si, en tant que collecte scientifique de matière vivante (plantes, champignons, micro-organismes, animaux, etc.), il s’agit d’une pratique ancienne et très répandue. Cette pratique peut s’appuyer sur la participation des populations indigènes et de leurs savoirs traditionnels sur les plantes, comme il en est question ici. [...] On voudrait analyser ici la bioprospection non dans ses modalités pratiques, mais plutôt comme objet de conflit politique, de controverse sociotechnique, permettant de faire dialoguer scientifiques, militants et politiques. [...]"

Problèmes d’Amérique Latine 2004, No. 54, pp. 95-122

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Owner valuation of rabies vaccination of dogs, Chad

Salome Dürr, Martin I. Meltzer, R. Mindekem, Jakob Zinsstag, 2008

Emerg Infect Dis 14:1650-1652.

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The Strongyloides (Nematoda) of sheep and the predominant Strongyloides of cattle form at least two different, genetically isolated populations

AG Eberhardt, Bassirou Bonfoh, WE Mayer, A. Streit, 2008

Strongyloides sp. (Nematoda) are very wide spread small intestinal parasites of vertebrates that can form a facultative free-living generation. Most authors considered all Strongyloides of farm ruminants to belong to the same species, namely Strongyloides papillosus (Wedl, 1856). Here we show that, at least in southern Germany, the predominant Strongyloides found in cattle and the
Strongyloides found in sheep belong to separate, genetically isolated populations. While we did find mixed infections in cattle, one form clearly dominated. This variety, in turn, was never found in sheep, indicating that the two forms have different host preferences.We also present molecular tools for distinguishing the two varieties, and an analysis of their phylogenetic relationship with the human parasite Strongyloides stercoralis and the major laboratory model species Strongyloides ratti.
Keywords: Strongyloides papillosus; Strongyloides vituli; Nematodes; Host specifity

Veterinary Parasitology 157:89-99.

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Upper Ewaso Ngiro River Basin Water Management Information Platform

Survey on Development Priorities, Information Needs and Conflict Management Efforts

Albrecht Ehrensperger, Boniface Kiteme, 2005

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From statistical data to spatial knowledge

Informed decision making in Vietnam

Michael Epprecht, Andreas Heinimann, N. Minot, D. Mueller, 2007

The display and analysis of spatial information is indispensable to generate knowledge about the location of objects, about spatial clusters, and relationships that informs decision-makers and researchers in Vietnam.

Information Development 23(2-3):193-204

Available from: Sage Journals Online

How remote are Vietnam's ethnic minorities? An analysis of spatial patterns of poverty and inequality.

Michael Epprecht, N. Minot, Daniel Müller, 2009

This paper investigates whether physical accessibility or ethnicity is a stronger determinant of poverty in Vietnam. Spatially disaggregated welfare indexes for population subgroups show that overall inequality is shaped by an urban–rural welfare divide, closely followed in importance by sharp welfare differences between ethnic groups. Accessibility to urban areas is a weaker determinant of poverty.The findings have important implications for the targeting of rural development investments. Addressing the factors isolating ethnic minorities from the mainstream economy is likely to be a more useful strategy in reducing rural poverty and inequality than simple geographic targeting.

The Annals of Regional Science. doi: 10.1007/s00168-009-0330-7

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Conversion of grazing land to fruit and fodder plots

M. Ergashev, Gulniso Nekushoeva, Bettina Wolfgramm, 2007

In: Liniger HP, Critchley W, editors. Where the land is greener. Case studies and analysis of soil and water conservation initiatives worldwide. CTA, Wageningen, pp 189-192.

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Farmer innovation and self-help group

M. Ergashev, Gulniso Nekushoeva, Bettina Wolfgramm, 2007

In: Liniger HP, Critchley W, editors. 2007. Where the land is greener. Case studies and analysis of soil and water conservation initiatives worldwide. CTA, Wageningen, pp 193-196.

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Changing Land Rights, Changing Land Use

Privatisation Drives Landscape Change in Post-Soviet Kyrgyzstan

Camilla Eriksson, 2006

The aim of this paper is to identify, document and analyse the change in land use systems as a consequence of the privatisation of agriculture in Kyrgyzstan.

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GIS applications for determining the hydrographic characteristics of rivers

Natalia Ershova, G. Frolova, 2004

For the identification of hydrographic characteristics of water facilities as the water collection area, the length of a river, the number of tributaries etc. the opportunities posed by GIS technologies are examined. Within the Sokuluk River Basin this task was tackled using ArcView GIS with the extension Spatial Analyst and Hydrologic Modelling modules. The potentials of the use of geo-information technologies lie within the specification and acquisition of different hydrographic characteristics, analyses, modelling of hydrologic processes and phenomena. However, some of the algorithms (i.e. determining watershed outlines) are imperfect and the tasks need to be perfomed manually in order to improve the results of hydrologic calculations.

Weather and climate of Kyrgyzstan. 64-68.

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La gestion du chômage défiée

Les sens de l ajustice dans les "récupérations" d'usines par les travailleurs en Argentine

Maria Ines Fernandez Alvarez, Ariel Wilkis, 2007

Autrepart (43). 2007: 11-24.

A tool box for operational mosquito larval control: preliminary results and early lessons from the Urban Malaria Control Programme in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Ulrike Fillinger, Prosper P Chaki, Marcia C de Castro, Stefan Dongus, Yvonne Geissbühler, Nico J. Govella, Khadija Kannady, Gerry F. Killeen, Steven W Lindsay, Evan M. Mathenge, Hassan Mshinda, Deo Mtasiwa, Dickson Nyika, Burton H. Singer, Marcel Tanner, Michael J. Vanek, George William, 2008

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Gender Relevance in Environmental Conflicts

A Gender Analysis of the Cauvery Dispute in South India

Susanne Fleischli, 2006

"The present study attempts to determine the significance of gender in environmental conflicts and to trace how considerations of gender may contribute to the management of environmental conflicts. These issues are examined by applying gender analysis to the specific case of the Cauvery River dispute in South India. The results show that gender does determine the way people are affected by an environmental conflict, and the way they are involved in the conflict management process. Consideration of gender may contribute to improved management of environmental conflicts by promoting the involvement of all stakeholders, including women, who are often marginalized in conflict management."

"Gender Relevance in Environmental Conflicts: A Gender Analysis of the Cauvery Dispute in South India" in: Premchander S, Müller C, editors. 2006. Gender and Sustainable Development: Case Studies from NCCR North-South. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, Bern: Geographica Bernensia, pp. 189-205.

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“We have Democracy Now”: The Impact of Institutional Change on the Logone Floodplain, Cameroon

Gilbert Fokou, Gabriela Landolt, 2005

The Common Property Resource Digest 2005, No. 74, pp. 4-5

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Autochthony, natural resource management and conflicting rights in West Africa.

Gilbert Fokou, Bassirou Bonfoh, Jerome Chenal, Mathieu Gasparini, Henri-Michel Yéré, 2010

Focusing on pastoralism and access to land, this article aims to demonstrate that management institutions are eroded in a context of resource scarcity, and that certain groups build discourse and strategies on fuzzy notions of nationhood or identity in order to exclude other users. In this process, the notion of autochthony appears to be an ideological tool in the hands of native people to express their social malaise and difficulties in sustaining their livelihoods in a context of global development. The article concludes that in a context of ‘presence-absence’ of the state, negotiations between various stakeholders at different levels could foster sustainable development.

In: Hurni H, Wiesmann U, editors; with an international group of co-editors. Global Change and Sustainable Development: A Synthesis of Regional Experiences from Research Partnerships. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, University of Bern, Vol. 5. Bern, Switzerland: Geographica Bernensia, pp 61-76.

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Institutions and mechanisms regulating Swiss alpine pasture use and the marketing of pastoral products.

Gilbert Fokou, A. Abdiev, J. Kozhomuratova, Karina Liechti, 2008

A characterization of the Swiss agriculture could be possible only by trying to get a clear understanding of various state policies and implementations levels; the exposure of Swiss farming system to global change; the identity of farmers; the perception of Swiss citizens on this category of population to whom a large amount of money from their taxes is paid. Only this clear understanding of the multifaceted dimensions and dynamics of the Swiss agriculture could contribute to drawing lessons that Switzerland could teach or learn from other people in the world.
This is the exercise we tried to do in a research project conducted in the Swiss Alps by an international research team from three continents (Africa, Asia, and Europe), aiming at understanding institutions and mechanisms regulating Swiss alpine pasture use. This report presents the remarks and interim results of an interdisciplinary team involving four researchers working on pasture management.

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Intersectoral policy dialog for well-being of nomadic people in Chad.

Towards a minimal social service package.

Gilbert Fokou, M.A. Abdoulaye, Mahamat Bechir, Bassirou Bonfoh, Doumagoum Moto Daugla, Moustapha Ould Taleb, Esther Schelling, Marcel Tanner, Daniel Weibel, Jakob Zinsstag, 2007

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Object-oriented land cover/land use classification for up-scaling agricultural nutrient budgets

Dionys Forster, Yves Bühler, T.W. Kellenberger, 2007

In: Bill, R. (ed.) 2007. GIS - Theory and Applications, Textbook for the DAAD Summer School, Internal Report, Volume 16, Rostock University, pp. 177-188.

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Movimientos piqueteros y democracia en Argentina

Un estudio sobre la acción política de cuatro organizaciones en el período 2002-2004

Ada Cora Freytes Frey, Maria Cecilia Cross, 2007

Latitude. Revista do Programa de Mestrado em Sociologia, Instituto de Ciências Sociais, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceió, Brasil. 2007, Año 1, Nº 1, pp. 83-100.

For further information, please contact the author.

Movimientos piqueteros: alcances de su construcción política

Ada Cora Freytes Frey, Maria Cecilia Cross, 2007

"The article approaches the subject of the significacy of the ‘piqueteros’ movements for the Argentine political field, retaking two habitual axes of discussion in the bibliography. As opposed to the debate about the continuity or rupture that these movements represent with respect to “the traditional” forms of organization of the popular sectors, it is indicated that this type of approach does not allow to understand the complex articulation between past and present that characterizes them. In relation to the controversy on the political effectiveness of its action, it is indicated that they have lastly transformed the perspections about unemployment, archivieng recognition in the public space and generated relevant spaces of social militants."

Revista Política y Cultura 2007, No. 27, pp. 121-141.

Available from: Revista Política y Cultura

Women in Organisations for Poor, Unemployed Working People

Reshaping Female Roles through Political Commitment

Ada Cora Freytes Frey, Karina Crivelli, Maria Cecilia Cross, Maria Ines Fernandez Alvarez, Florencia Partenio, 2006

In: Premchander S, Müller C, editors. 2006. Gender and Sustainable Development: Case Studies from NCCR North-South. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South. Bern: Geographica Bernensia, pp. 233-245.

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Women's Participation in Argentina's Picketing Movement

Ada Cora Freytes Frey, Karina Crivelli, 2007

"Based on case study analysis of four picketing organizations in Argentina, this article analyzes the impact of women's participation in the picketing movements, on the ways in which women think about themselves and the social roles they claim. Women's initial involvement in the picketing movements was tied closely to their performance of the traditional roles of mother and wife. Over time, and as a result of women's social participation, these roles acquired new meaning. Women began to reject certain stereotypes linked to the feminine, and to challenge some aspects of the gendered division of tasks and responsibilities. Redefinition of feminine roles, however, has limitations, which are evident through analysis of the unequal participation of women in the movements’ leadership."

Journal of Developing Societies 2007, Volume 23, Issues 1-2, pp. 243-258.

Available from: Journal of Developing Societies

Towards a System Dynamics Framework for Understanding Interactions of Head- and Tail-Users in Irrigation Systems in Kyrgyzstan

Justus Gallati, Bakyt Askaraliev, Daniel Maselli, Peter Niederer, 2006

Conference paper for the 24th International Conference of the System Dynamics Society July 23-27, 2006 Nijmegen, The Netherlands

The paper outlines a conceptual framework for a dynamic model for collective irrigation management. Furthermore a preliminary causal loop diagram for the interaction of upstream- and downstream users is presented. The study builds on the results of a workshop with local participants in Kyrgyzstan on sustainable regional development and on the literature on collective resource management.

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Institutional strengthening of the Amarakaeri Communal Reserve (Madre de Dios - Peruan Amazonia)

Marc Galvin, Marie Thorndahl, 2005

Since 2002, the Peruvian government has allowed the Harakmbut people to conserve and manage natural resources within their ancestral territory. In order to alleviate the difficulties the Harakmbut had in establishing the institutional and operational framework of this protected area, a PAMS project aiming to strengthen indigenous institutions in the Amarakaeri Communal Reserve, has supported training of administrative leaders and forest rangers.

Mountain, Research and Development, June 05

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Natural Resource Management for Sustainable Livelihoods – Challenges and Trends in Central Asian Mountain Regions

A Garayeva, Daniel Maselli, 2008

Los procesos de recuperacion de Fabricas

Una mirada retrospectiva

Veronica Garcia Allegrone, Maria Ines Fernandez Alvarez, Florencia Partenio, 2004

In: Battistini OR. 2004. El trabajo frente al espejo: Continuidades y rupturas en los procesos de construccion identitaria de los trabajadores. Buenos Aires, Prometeo Libros, pp. 329-344

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"Donor-driven" forest governance in northwest Pakistan - challenges and future outlook

Urs Geiser, Babar Shahbaz, 2010

In sum, the present situation of forestry in NWFP is one of tension, mistrust, and the existence of unrelated forest governance regimes (customary procedures; state/donors approach).
We argue (1) that more independent agents are required to mediate between state and local forest users, and (2) that local people need to be provided with the information that they are entitled to demand proper and inclusive Joint Forest Management Committees. For donors, this represents a delicate situation of choice and "positioning", i.e. defining with whom to cooperate and who to support.

In: Carter J, Schmidt K, Robinson P, Stadtmüller T, Nizami A, editors. Forests, landscapes and governance: multiple actors, multiple roles.

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Civil society need not speak English

Urs Geiser, 2006

"In Pakistan’s North-West Frontier Province, international donors found it difficult to find non-governmental organisations relevant to their purposes. Because donors were uncomfortable with the local conditions and regional traditions, they simply overlooked possible contacts."

Magazine for Development & Cooperation 2006, Vol. 33, Issue 8-9, pp. 326-328

Available online from: Magazine for Development & Cooperation

Civil society, community participation, and the search for sustainable development

Questioning the categories and underlying concepts of a popular discourse

Urs Geiser, 2003

In: SDPI [Sustainable Development Policy Institute]. editor. 2003. Sustainable Development and Southern Realities - Past and Future in South Asia. Sustainable Development Policy Institute, City Press, Islamabad, Pakistan, pp. 197-211.

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Entwicklungsinterventionen und die Macht lokaler Alltagspraxis

Das Beispiel der Waldnutzung in Pakistan

Urs Geiser, 2006

"Von Geographischer Entwicklungsforschung wird häufig Praxisrelevanz gefordert, die sich etwa in Begleitforschungen zur Entwicklungszusammenarbeit (EZA) äussert. Solch anwendungsorientierte Forschung ist wichtig, thematisiert aber nie das Instrument der Entwicklungsintervention und deren Grundannahmen selber. Der Artikel argumentiert deshalb für eine Forschung zur Entwicklung als soziale Praxis, mit deren Hilfe die Wirkungsweise der EZA als eine soziale Arena der Politikformulierung und -umsetzung begriffen wird. Diese analytische Perspektive wird am Beispiel der stark genutzten Wälder Nordwest-Pakistans eingesetzt. Trotz intensiver Entwicklungsanstrengungen in den letzten zwanzig Jahren geht es den Wäldern heute so schlecht wie zuvor. Durch eine Perspektive von Entwicklung als soziale Praxis wird deutlich, dass zwischen der Formulierung von Entwicklungspolitiken und ihrer praktischen Umsetzung grosse Unterschiede bestehen, welche häufig im Spannungsfeld zwischen «Projektwelten» und der realen Alltagspraxis der Beteiligten begründet liegt."

Geographica Helvetica 2006, Vol. 61, No. 1, pp. 4-13

Available from:Geographica Helvetica

Gemeinschaft, Zivilgesellschaft und Staat als sozialer Kontext des Lebensalltags in den Bergen Nepals und Pakistans

Urs Geiser, Ulrike Müller-Böker, 2003

In: Jeanneret F, Wastl-Walter D, Wiesmann U, Schwyn M. editors. 2003. Welt der Alpen - Gebirge der Welt. Ressourcen, Akteure, Perspektiven. Bern: Haupt Verlag.

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State actors' livelihoods, acts of translation, and forest sector reforms in northwest Pakistan

Urs Geiser, Bernd Steimann, 2004

"Forests in the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan are under heavy pressure. Often, local people are blamed in this regard for their exploitative resource use. The present paper, however, searches for an understanding of the ongoing processes by analysing the livelihood strategies and daily practices of representatives of the local state and donor project experts. Insights show that policy formulation at the provincial capital is not implemented in a functionalist manner at lower levels of the administration. Instead, many processes and acts of translation within the wider context of livelihood strategies take place along the actual practice (rather than the discourse) of policy formulation and implementation through the various scales from the head offices of donors in the North to the provincial capital in the South, to the regional centres and, finally, to the forests in the Hindukush-Himalayan mountains."

Contemporary South Asia 2004, Vol. 13, Issue 4, pp. 437 - 448

Available from: informaworld

The Urgency of (Not Necessarily) Policy-Oriented Research

The Example of Power Devolution and Natural Resource Management in North-West Pakistan

Urs Geiser, 2005

In: SDPI [Sustainable Development Policy Institute Islamabad], editor. 2005. Sustainable Development. Bridging the Research / Policy Gaps in Southern Contexts. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Vol.I: Environment, pp. 67-76

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Vertrauen versetzt Bäume

Urs Geiser, Babar Shahbaz, 2010

Die Wälder im Nordwesten Pakistans sind bedroht. Sie überleben nur, wenn die Bevölkerung und die lokalen Behörden bei der Bewirtschaftung und beim Schutz konstruktiv zusammenarbeiten. Ein Forschungsprojekt zeigt, wie sich das schwierige Verhältnis zwischen ihnen verbessern lässt.

In: KFPE: Gemeinsam zum Erfolg - Was Forschungspartnerschaften mit Entwicklungsländern bewirken. Bern: Akademie der Naturwissenschaften Schweiz (SCNAT).

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El mundo en un espejo

Percepciones campesinas de los cambios ambientales en el Occidente de México

Peter Gerritsen, Pedro Figueroa, Maria Montero, 2004

"An understanding of the current policies that conjugate the conservative interests with the develompental demands needs an analysis of the sustainable development concept. This study examines how the environmental change is perceived by a farmer comunity located in a Biosphere Reserve. We observe how the policies promoted by the globalising development tear down progressively the universe of meanings of the farmers. Thus, their particular view of the natural, productive and social cycles goes through a crisis, creating a dependence based on the incomprehension and ignorance of external factors. This analysis leads us to address some ideas for the management of protected natural areas, taking into consideration all the actors, interests and notions involved in order to achieve an integrating and communicative sustainable development."

Economía, Sociedad y Territorio 2004, pp. 253-278

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Farmer and Conventional Perspectives on Conservation in Western Mexico

Peter Gerritsen, Freerk Wiersum, 2005

Establishment of conservation areas has become a standard strategy for protecting biodiversity. Different categories are distinguished, such as those that aim at enhancing local participation. Although rapid evolution has taken place since the 1970s, stimulating participation still challenges conservationists. Understanding the complex issues impacting on participation is a first step in finding more effective methods of conservation. The present article addresses this issue by contrasting farmer and conventional perspectives on conservation. A differentiation between ecologically oriented biodiversity conservation perspectives and livelihood-oriented resource diversity perspectives is proposed. A case study from western Mexico illustrates both perspectives.

Mountain Research and Development 2005, Vol. 25, No. 1: pp. 30–36

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Global Change, Urbanization and Natural Resource Management in Western Mexico

Peter Gerritsen, Jean-Claude Bolay, S. Garcia, S. Graf, Silvia Hostettler, Luis Manuel Martinez, C. Ortiz, E. Santana, 2005

ETFRN [European Tropical Forest Research Network] News: Forests, Water and Livlihoods, No 45-46 Winter 2005/06, pp. 58-60.

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Student Workshop Proceedings on Peace-Building in Nepal

Safal Ghimire, A. Nahikian, 2009

The document contains the results of discussions held during a visit to Nepal by Harvard University students, co-hosted by the NCCR North-South and Kathmandu University.

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Globale Landwirtschaft vor alten und neuen Herausforderungen

Markus Giger, Hans Hurni, Brigitte Portner, Urs Scheidegger, 2009

GAIA 17(3):280-286

Mapping H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza risk in Southeast Asia

Marius Gilbert, Stephen Boles, Prasit Chaitaweesub, Christina Czarnecki, Michael Epprecht, Wantanee Kalpravidh, Vincent Martin, Phan Q. Minh, M. J. Otte, Dirk U. Pfeiffer, Jan Slingenbergh, Xiangming Xiao, 2008

"...This article analyses the statistical association between the recorded HPAI H5N1 virus presence and a set of five key environmental variables comprising elevation, human population, chicken numbers, duck numbers, and rice cropping intensity for three synchronous epidemic waves in Thailand and Vietnam. A consistent pattern emerges suggesting risk to be associated with duck abundance, human population, and rice cropping intensity in contrast to a relatively low association with chicken numbers..."

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) 2008, Vol. 105, No. 12, pp. 4769-4774.

Available online from: PNAS.org

Conflict Transformation

Laurent Goetschel, 2009

In: Chetail V, editor. Lexique Peacebuilding.

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Intervention und Mediation in Konflikten

Von der „Genfer Initiative“ zur Bearbeitung von Umweltkonflikten

Laurent Goetschel, 2006

In: Sara Zwahlen, Wolfgang Lienemann, editors. 2006. Kollektive Gewalt. Bern, Peter Lang, pp. 87-101


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Les conflits liés aux ressources naturelles

Résultats de recherches et perspectives

Laurent Goetschel, Didier Péclard, 2006

"Laurent Goetschel et Didier Péclard rendent compte, dans leur contribution, des enseignements qu’ils ont pu tirer d’un projet individuel de recherche mené par la Fondation suisse pour la paix, projet qui s’inscrit dans un programme national de recherche intitulé NCCR North-South – Research Partnerships for Mitigating Syndromes of Global Change. Selon ces auteurs, la portée heuristique du lien de causalité supposé direct entre la diminution des ressources naturelles et la survenance de conflits violents doit être nuancée. Il y a en effet d’autres facteurs à prendre en compte, notamment historique, politique et économique, pour expliquer les conflits."

Annuaire suisse de politique de développement 2006, Vol. 25, No. 2, pp. 95-106

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Menschliche Sicherheit als Ziel der Staatenwelt:

Akademische Perspektiven und politische Praxis

Laurent Goetschel, 2008

NZZ, Nr. 219/2008: B7.

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Property Rights, Conflicts, and Peace

Laurent Goetschel, 2006

In: Heranando de Soto, Francis Cheneval, editors. 2006. Realizing property rights. Zürich, Rüffer&Rub Publishing House, pp. 186-193

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La vulnérabilité des citadins à Abidjan en relation avec le palu. Les risques environnementaux et la commoditization agissant à travers le palu sur la vulnérabilité urbaine

Stefanie Granado, Anne-Marie Ettien Ablan, Nadège Adjoua Boko N'Gronma, Brigit Obrist, Marcel Tanner, Albert Kouakou Yao, 2006

The article aims to better understand the relation between urban vulnerability, environmental risks, and commoditization in regard to palu in Abidjan (Côte d’Ivoire). This research in medical anthropology analyses the local illness palu (abbreviation of the paludisme, e.g. malaria), a bodily experience of non-specific symptoms.
Environmental risks are closely linked to palu. They are locally understood as a cause of palu, which, as the illness becomes a concrete bodily experience, offer a possibility of acting upon and addressing these risks. The patient does have the possibility of treating its palu with remedies. Therefore, commoditization of drugs not
only represents a source of vulnerability but also offers a possibility to face persisting environmental risks. Vulnerability and its attached meanings are a dynamic concept. Unfortunately, commoditization of drugs implies high risks of over- or mistreatment.

In French

VertigO - la revue électronique en sciences de l'environnement hors série 3

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Palu - eine Metapher im Alltag Abidjans (Côte d'Ivoire)

Stefanie Granado, 2005

Bodily experiences, reported causes and curing strategies against palu (paludisme, malaria) as embodied metaphors in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

Tsantsa 2005, 10: pp. 157-161

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The moment of sale: treating malaria in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire

Stefanie Granado, Lenore Manderson, Brigit Obrist, Marcel Tanner, 2009

Anthropology & Medicine 16(3):319-331.

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'A female ... will not be available here': Gendered labour markets in Northwest Pakistan's rural development sector

Julia Grünenfelder, 2012

While Pakistan has legally binding mechanisms to promote gender equality in employment, labour markets are shaped by the highly gender-segregated society they are embedded in. Based on the conceptualisation of labour markets as gendered institutions, I explore how gender generates unequal access to the labour market for social organisers—a term referring to a type of development practitioner—in the Hazara region, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan, making it difficult for women to participate in an occupational field where they are urgently needed to work with village women.

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Negotiating gender relations: Muslim women and formal employment in Pakistan’s rural development sector

Julia Grünenfelder, 2012

Drawing on evidence from qualitative field research, this article explores how Pakistani female development practitioners experience their work situations as they are shaped both by local sociocultural norms and globalized development agendas.

Grünenfelder J. 2012. Negotiating gender relations: Muslim women and formal employment in Pakistan’s rural development sector. Gender, Work and Organization.

Available at Onlinelibrary.wiley

Reconciling conservation and livelihood needs in protected areas of Nepal

A case study of Kangchenjunga Conservation Area

Ghana Gurung, 2006

In: Jeff McNeely, Tom McCarthy, Andrew Smith, Linda Whittaker and Eric Wikramnayake, editors. 2006. Conservation Biology in Asia. Kathmandu: Society for Conservation Biology Asia Section and Resources Himalaya Foundation, pp. 45-61

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Beyond clannishness and colonialism: understanding political disorder in Ethiopia's Somali Region, 1991–2004

Tobias Hagmann, 2005

This article proposes an alternative interpretation of political disorder in Ethiopia's Somali Regional State since the rise to power of the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) in 1991. Some observers have perceived contemporary politics in the former Ogaden as an example of ‘internal colonisation’ by highland Ethiopians. Others attribute political instability to the ‘nomadic culture’ inherent in the Somali clan structure and the ineptness of its political leaders. This study argues that neither of these two politicised narratives grasps the contradictory interactions between the federal Ethiopian government and its Somali periphery, nor the recursive relations between state and society. With reference to the literature on neo-patrimonialism, I elucidate political disorder in the Somali Region by empirically describing hybrid political domination, institutional instability, and patronage relations, showing how neo-patrimonial rule translates into contested statehood in the region and political devices ranging from military coercion to subtle co-optation. Rather than unilateral domination, a complex web of power and manipulation between parts of the federal and regional authorities animates political disorder in Ethiopia's Somali Region.

The Journal of Modern African Studies 2005, Vol. 43, No. 4, pp. 509-536

Available from: Cambridge University Press

Book review of Ho-Won Jeong (2002): Approaches to Peacebuilding

Tobias Hagmann, 2003

Millennium: Journal of International Studies 2003, Vol. 32, No. 1, pp. 179-181

Available from: IngentaConnect

Bringing the Sultan Back In

Elders as Peacemakers in Ethiopia’s Somali Region

Tobias Hagmann, 2007

In: Buur L, Kyed H M, editors. State Recognition and Democratisation in Sub-Saharan Africa. A New Dawn for Traditional Authorities? New York: Palgrave, pp. 31-51.

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Failed state or failed debate? Multiple Somali political orders within and beyond the nation-state

Tobias Hagmann, M.V. Hoehne, 2007

Politorbis. Vierteljährliche Zeitschrift zur Aussenpolitik (42):20-26.

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From state collapse to duty-free shop: Somalia’s path to modernity

Review Article

Tobias Hagmann, 2005

African Affairs 2005, Vol. 104, No. 416, pp. 525-535

Available from: Oxford Journals

La Région Somali d’Éthiopie. Entre intégration, indépendance et irrédentisme

Tobias Hagmann, Mohamud H. Khalif, 2005

With the introduction of « ethnic federalism » by Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front, Somalis have finally been accorded autonomy in eastern Ethiopia. But fifteen years after the Derg, Ethiopian-Somali identity is still disputed and the question of self-determination is far from being resolved. The inhabitants of the Somali region are struggling with three options : integration into Ethiopia, independence based on territory and genealogy or irredentism toward the defunct Democratic Republic of Somalia.

Politique Africaine 2005, No. 99, pp. 43-62

Available from: Politique Africaine

Pastoral conflicts and state-building in the Ethiopian lowlands

Tobias Hagmann, Allemmaya Mulugeta, 2008

Africa Spectrum 43 (1): 19-37.

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Review of Bruce Kapferer (ed). 2004. State, Sovereignty, War: Civil violence in emerging global realities. New York, Oxford: Berghahn

Tobias Hagmann, 2006

Journal of Peace Research 2006, Vol. 43, No. 5, pp. 637-638

Available for purchase from: SAGE JOURNALS Online

State and Politics in Ethiopia's Somali Region since 1991

Tobias Hagmann, Mohamud H. Khalif, 2006

Bildhaan: An International Journal of Somali Studies 2006, Vol. 6, pp. 25-49

Available from: tobiashagmann.net

Common Property Resource Management, Institutional Change and Conflicts in African Floodplain Wetlands

Tobias Haller, 2002

Most contemporary discussions on African development since independence forty years ago emphasize the notion that Africa is still “mal parti”. Many show discontent for what has been achieved in this time, despite that “Africa works” as is suggested by Chabal and Daloz in their widely discussed book (1999). I will focus on the issue of sustainable development in Africa. This will be illustrated by the presentation of a common property resource management research project (on fisheries, pastures, wildlife, water for irrigation, and forests). The question of why the overuse of natural resources and conflicts over resources are occurring in modern day Africa is addressed here. This research project is called “Common Property Institutions and Power Relations: Resource Management, Change and Conflicts in African Floodplain Wetlands”. It focuses on six African floodplain wetlands in semi-arid zones (Internal Niger Delta in Mali, Hadejia-Jama'ara in Northern Nigeria, Logone Floodplain in Northern Cameroon, Pangani Floodplain in Tanzania, Okavango Delta in Botswana and Kafue Flats in Zambia (Haller 2001)) [...].

The African Anthropologist 2002, Vol 9, No.1, pp. 25-35

Available from: African Journals Online

Disputing African Floodplains: Comparison and Conclusions from AFWeP Case Studies

Tobias Haller, Jürg Helbling, 2005

The Common Property Resource Digest 2005, No. 74, pp. 9-10

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Geoinformation und Informationsmanagement in Parks und Parkprojekten in der Schweiz

Vorabklärungen für den Aufbau eines Data Warehouse unter besonderer berücksichtigung der Geoinformationsdaten für Pärke von nationaler Bedeutung im Auftrag des Bundesamtes für Umwelt BAFU

Ruedi Haller, Madlene Nussbaum, Ronald Schmidt, Astrid Wallner, 2009

Opening Up the CPRs: Institutional Change and the State in the Kafue Flats, Zambia

Tobias Haller, Sonja Merten, 2005

The Common Property Resource Digest 2005, No. 74, pp. 7-8

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Property rights, food security and child growth: Dynamics of insecurity in the Kafue Flats of Zambia.

Tobias Haller, 2008

In: Food Policy 33:434-443.

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We are Zambians - Don't tell us how to fish! Institutional change, power relations and conflicts in the Kafue Flats Fisheries in Zambia.

Tobias Haller, Sonja Merten, 2008

In: Human Ecology 36(5):699-715.

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Sudan and the Nile Basin

Osman El-Tom Hamad, Atta El-Battahani, 2005

The following article gives an overview of Sudanese water development facts and potentials and their regional impact on the other countries sharing the Nile River and beyond. These are set in relation to the unique environmental, socio-economic and political context of Sudan. While the availability of land for irrigation is great, water is limited due to Sudans situation upstream of Egypt and downstream of Ethiopia and the Equatorial Lakes. This geographical position makes Sudan take on a mediative approach to international relations in the Nile Basin. Recent steps to cooperation in the Nile Basin Initiative are presented; they highlight the enormous opportunities that exist in the cooperative development of the Nile.

Aquatic Sciences 2005, (67): pp. 28-41

Available from: SpringerLink

Migration – Addressing or Importing Risk?

Hajira Hamid, Karin Astrid Siegmann, 2007

"Migration across national borders is increasingly being seen as a strategy to alleviate poverty, to reduce vulnerability to crises and to support recovery once a disaster – be it a flood, an accident, or a business failure – has struck. This article aims to shed some light on the relationship between transnational migration, vulnerability and resilience. Whereas vulnerability relates to potential physical, social, economic and other damage, resilience means the capacity to survive, adapt to and bounce back from crisis and disaster (IFRC, 2004). The paper looks at migration on different levels, from individual women and men moving or staying back migrating or staying home, to the national level where aggregate population and remittance flows are counted."

SDPI Research and News Bulletin 2007, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 3-6.

Available from: SDPI

Egypt and the Nile Basin

Magdy Hefny, Salah El-Din Amer, 2005

The following paper examines the Nile question from an Egyptian perspective. The Nile is Egypts main source of water, and 96% of this water originates from outside of its territory. This explains why water is a key security issue for Egypt, and why, from Egypts point of view, cooperation with the upstream Nile countries is the only way forward. Egypts water policy focuses on demand management, environmental protection and international joint projects to increase the water supply (e.g. Jonglei canal).

Aquatic Sciences 2005, (67): pp. 42-50.

Available from: SpringerLink

From Pattern to Process: New Approaches in Land Cover Research at the Regional Level in the Lower Mekong Basin

Andreas Heinimann, 2005

The present research project endeavors to further exploiti the static land cover inventories in combination with regional spatial databases in order to find spatially explicit clues about what processes are responsible for changes observed at the regional scale in the Lower Mekong Basin. The approach is based on the assumption that the geometrical patterns of land cover and land cover dynamics can be indicators for ongoing active processes of change. Methods borrowed from landscape ecology may offer a possibility of quantifying the ability of the human eye to recognize patterns qualitatively. The patterns discovered in the land cover inventories of 1993 and 1997 in the Lower Mekong Basin are linked to hypothetical process groups. The linkage between geometrical pattern and hypothetical process of land cover change is based on expert knowledge systems, thorough meta-analysis of case studies and spatial analysis with regional representations of potential driving forces.

In: Proceeding of the Internation Conference on Agricultural Research for Development: European Responses to Changing Global Needs , 27-29 April 2005, ETH, Zürich, p.37.

GIS based watershed classification in Lao P.D.R

Andreas Heinimann, 2006

The Mekong River Commission (MRC) elaborated a spatial explicit Watershed Classification (WSC) for the Lower Mekong Basin. Based on topographic factors derived from a high-resolution Digital Terrain Model, five watershed classes are calculated, giving indication about the sensitivity to resource degradation by soil erosion. An analysis of the WSC in conjunction with forest cover data revealed that the more the 37% of Laos can be considered as critical with regard to degradation risk by soil erosion. The WSC allows spatial priority setting for watershed management and generally supports informed decision making on reconnaissance level. In the conclusions the article focuses on general considerations when GIS techniques are used for spatial decision support in a development context.

In: Ohgaki S, Fujushi K, Katayama H, Takizawa S, Polprasert C. Southeast Asian Water Environments1: Biodiversity and Water Environments. London: IWA Publishing, pp 43–50.

Available for purchase from: IWA Publishing

Watershed Classification in the Lower Mekong Basin

Andreas Heinimann, Thomas Breu, Thomas Kohler, 2005

Mountain Research and Development 2005, Volume 25, Issue 2, pp. 181–182

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Gemeinsames Lernen in Forschungspartnerschaften mit dem Süden – praxisnah, interkulturell und transdisziplinär

Karl Herweg, Hans Hurni, Manfred Künzel, Stephan Rist, 2009

In: Darbellay F, Paulsen T, editors. Herausforderungen Inter- und Transdisziplinarität. Konzepte, Methoden und innovative Umsetzung in Lehre und Forschung. Lausanne: Presses polytechniques et universitaires romandes, p. 83-91

Stations of the soil conservation research programme (SCRP) in Ethiopia

Karl Herweg, Hans Hurni, Brigitte Portner, 2007

In: Hurni H, Bantider A, Herweg K, Portner B, Veit, H, editors. Landscape Transformation and Sustainable Development in Ethiopia. Background information for a study tour through Ethiopia, 4-20 September 2006. Bern: Centre for Development and Environment, University of Bern.

Milk consumption patterns in an area with traditional milk production.

Data from a case control study in Peri-Urban Bamako, Mali

M. Hetzel, Idriss O. Alfaroukh, Bassirou Bonfoh, Zakaria Farah, Cheikh F. Simbé, Jakob Zinsstag, 2005

Revue Africaine de Santé et de Productions Animales 3(3-4):174-177.

Reducing vulnerability to climate change in the Swiss Alps: a study of adaptive planning

Margot Hill, Jose Furtado, Astrid Wallner, 2010

Climate Policy 10: 70-86.

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La gouvernance urbaine, du Nord au Sud

Acceptions, hybridations, ambiguïtés

Isabelle Hillenkamp-Buscail, 2007

iuéd Working Paper 2007, Etudes courtes, No. 11.

Available from: The Graduate Institute

Evaluation of the discriminatory power of variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) typing of Mycobacterium bovis strains

Markus Hilty, Franca Baggi, Colette Diguimbaye, Esther Schelling, Marcel Tanner, Jakob Zinsstag, 2005

The discriminatory power of variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) typing based on 16 known loci (12 MIRUs, 3 ETRs and VNTR 3232) was assessed for Mycobacterium bovis strains collected sequentially at the slaughterhouse of N’Djaména, Chad. Of 67 M. bovis strains analyzed, 67% were clustered. In this study, VNTR typing was highly discriminative with an overall allelic diversity (hoa) of 0.922. We defined five loci (ETR A, B, C and MIRU 26, 27) as highly (h > 0.25), two loci (MIRU 4, and VNTR 3232) as moderately (0.11 < h < 0.25) and three loci (MIRU 16, 20, 31) as poorly (0.01 < h < 0.11) discriminative. Six loci (MIRU 2, 10, 23, 24, 39, and 40) showed no polymorphism at all. VNTR typing of the five highly discriminative loci (h = 0.917) proved to be most appropriate for first line typing of M. bovis strains of Chad and superior than spoligotyping (hsp = 0.789). In contrast to Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains, a consensus on VNTR loci needs to be found for M. bovis strains. The selection of a generally agreed set of VNTR loci for molecular discrimination of M. bovis in different geographical settings is discussed.

Veterinary Microbiology 2005, Vol. 109, Issues 3-4, pp. 217-222

Available from: ScienceDirect

Genetic Diversity in Mycobacterium ulcerans Isolates from Ghana Revealed by a Newly Identified Locus Containing a Variable Number of Tandem Repeats

Markus Hilty, Daniel Boakye, Ernestina Mensah-Quainoo, David Ofori-Adjei, Gerd Pluschke, Françoise Portaels, Simona Rondini, Esther Schelling, Dorothy Yeboah-Manu, Jakob Zinsstag, 2006

"The molecular typing methods used so far for Mycobacterium ulcerans isolates have not been able to identify genetic differences among isolates from Africa. This apparent lack of genetic diversity among M. ulcerans isolates is indicative of a clonal population structure. We analyzed the genetic diversity of 72 African isolates, including 57 strains from Ghana, by variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) typing based on a newly identified polymorphic locus designated ST1 and the previously described locus MIRU 1. Three different genotypes were found in Ghana, demonstrating for the first time the genetic diversity of M. ulcerans in an African country. While the ST1/MIRU 1 allele combination BD/BAA seems to dominate in Africa, it was only rarely found in isolates from Ghana, where the combination BD/B was dominant and observed in all districts studied. A third variant genotype (C/BAA) was found only in the Amansie-West district. The results indicate that new genetic variants of M. ulcerans emerged and spread within Ghana and support the potential of VNTR-based typing for genotyping of M. ulcerans."

Journal of Bacteriology 2006, Vol. 188, No. 4, p. 1462-1465

Available from: Journal of Bacteriology

Rural energy consumption and land degradation in a post-Soviet setting

An example from the west Pamir mountains in Tajikistan

Tobias Hoeck, Thomas Breu, Roman Droux, Hans Hurni, Daniel Maselli, 2007

"The sustainable use of energy resources in semi-arid rural mountain areas is a common but still unresolved problem, often resulting in environmental degradation. In a post-Soviet setting the identification of possible solutions poses specific challenges. [...] The study revealed that the close interlinkage between local energy resource use and land degradation leads to a paradoxical situation in present energy consumption. The scarcer the local energy resource base, the higher the overall energy consumption at household level appears to be. It can further be concluded that since 1991 energy consumption patterns in the Tajik Pamirs have become comparable to patterns in semi-arid rural mountain regions of developing countries. Like many countries in the South, the Tajik Pamirs suffer from chronic energy scarcity, unsatisfactory supply of modern energy carriers and unsustainable use of local biomass fuels, leading to land degradation. This calls for a reassessment of the energy policy orientation for Tajikistan."

Energy for Sustainable Development, 2007, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 48-57

Available from: International Energy Initiative

Gemeinsames staatlich-kollektives Wassermanagement in Cochabamba, Bolivien

Sabine Hoffmann, 2005

In: Schweizerisches Jahrbuch für Entwicklungspolitik. Öffentlich-private Partnerschaften und internationale Entwicklungszusammenarbeit, Band 24, Nr. 2. 2005. iuéd, Genf, pp. 183-194.

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Hacia una (re)conceptualización de ciudadanía

Sabine Hoffmann, 2005

Este artículo presenta un esquema analítico de la ciudadanía, el mismo que comprende diferentes dimensiones interrelacionadas. Partiendo de las dimensiones “status versus práctica”, “lo privado versus lo público” y “espacio público” se busca conceptualizar la noción de la participación ciudadana en los espacios públicos.

T'inkazos - Revista Boliviana de Ciencias Sociales 2005, No. 18, pp. 81-91

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La cogestion étatique-communautaire de l'eau à Cochabamba (Bolivie)

Sabine Hoffmann, 2005

"L’article de Sabine Hoffmann aborde la notion de partenariat par le biais des régimes institutionnels de propriété et de possession. Aux yeux de l’auteure, les partenariats posent inéluctablement des conditions institutionnelles qui définissent les droits, les obligations, les privilèges et les non-droits des acteurs concernés. L’article expose les différentes logiques auxquelles sont soumis les acteurs dans le cadre de partenariats : rationalité économique (liée à une économie de propriété) ou raison écosociale (liée à une économie de possession). Quelle logique guide les acteurs ? La réponse apportée par l’auteure s’appuie sur une étude de cas menée à Cochabamba, en Bolivie, concernant l’accès à l’eau potable."

Annuaire suisse de politique de développement 2005, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 179-190

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Participation citoyenne à la construction des espaces publics, ou les diverses pratiques et conceptions autour de la gestion des services de l'eau potable à Cochabamba, Bolivie

Sabine Hoffmann, 2005

LAZOS - Bulletin de liaison bolivianiste, March 2005, No. 7, pp. 69-76.

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Handbook of Transdisciplinary Research: Idea of the Handbook

Holger Hoffmann-Riem, Susette Biber-Klemm, Walter Grossenbacher-Mansuy, Gertrude Hirsch Hadorn, Dominique Joye, Christian Pohl, Urs Wiesmann, Elisabeth Zemp, 2007

Transdisciplinary orientations in research, education and institutions try to overcome the mismatch between knowledge production in academia, and knowledge requests for solving societal problems. It becomes necessary to transgress boundaries between different academic cultures, such as between the humanities and the natural sciences. Furthermore, researchers have to step into problem fields and engage in mutual learning with people in the life-world. In doing so, disciplinary standards of knowledge production are sacrificed. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a state of the art for transdisciplinary forms of research. This is best done by learning from experiences. The Handbook is intended to enable learning from exemplary experiences in research and to provide a more systematic account of some cross-cutting issues. This chapter describes the idea behind the Handbook and the contents of the Handbook.

In: Hirsch Hadorn G et al, editors. Handbook of Transdisciplinary Research. Springer Verlag.

Available from: Springer Verlag.

Participatory Geographic Information System

Silvia Hostettler, 2006

In: Geist H. editor. 2006. Our Earth's Changing Land. Encyclopedia of Land-Use and Land-Cover Change. Greenwood Press. USA. p. 452

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Remittances landscape

Silvia Hostettler, 2006

In: Geist H. editor. 2006. Our Earth's Changing Land. Encyclopedia of Land-Use and Land-Cover Change. Greenwood Press. USA. p. 503-506

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Confronting limitations

New solutions required for urban water management in Kunming City

Dong-Bin Huang, Hans-Peter Bader, Willi Gujer, Ruth Scheidegger, Roland Schertenleib, 2006

"Despite continuous investment and various efforts to control pollution, urban water environments are worsening in large parts of the developing world. In order to reveal potential constraints and limitations of current practices of urban water management and to stimulate proactive intervention, we conducted a material flow analysis of the urban water system in Kunming City. The results demonstrate that the current efficiency of wastewater treatment is only around 25% and the emission of total phosphorous from the city into its receiving water, Dianchi Lake, is more than 25 times higher than its estimated tolerance. With regard to the crisis of water quantity and quality, the goal of a sustainable urban water environment cannot be attained with the current problem-solving approach in the region due to the technical limitations of the conventional urban drainage and treatment systems. A set of strategies is therefore proposed. The urban drainage system in Zurich is used as a reference for a potential best-available technology for conventional urban water management (BAT) scenario in terms of its low combined frequency of sewer overflow."

Journal of Environmental Management, online since July 2006

Available online from: ScienceDirect

Discrete Event Simulation for Exploring Strategies

An Urban Water Management Case

Dong-Bin Huang, Derek E. Chitwood, Willi Gujer, Peter Loukopoulos, Roland Schertenleib, Roland W. Scholz, Hansruedi Siegrist, 2007

"This paper presents a model structure aimed at offering an overview of the various elements of a strategy and exploring their multidimensional effects through time in an efficient way. It treats a strategy as a set of discrete events planned to achieve a certain strategic goal and develops a new form of causal networks as an interfacing component between decision makers and environment models, e.g., life cycle inventory and material flow models. The causal network receives a strategic plan as input in a discrete manner and then outputs the updated parameter sets to the subsequent environmental models. Accordingly, the potential dynamic evolution of environmental systems caused by various strategies can be stepwise simulated. It enables a way to incorporate discontinuous change in models for environmental strategy analysis, and enhances the interpretability and extendibility of a complex model by its cellular constructs. It is exemplified using an urban water management case in Kunming, a major city in Southwest China. By utilizing the presented method, the case study modeled the cross-scale interdependencies of the urban drainage system and regional water balance systems, and evaluated the effectiveness of various strategies for improving the situation of Dianchi Lake."

Environmental Science & Technology 2007, Vol. 41, Issue 3, pp. 915-921

Available for purchase from: ACS Publications

Gobernanza de los bosques y conservación en Bolivia

Marc Hufty, Patrick Bottazzi, 2005

In: Marc Hufty, Claude Auroi and Manuel de la Fuente, editors. 2005. ¿A dónde va Bolivia? Gobernancia, gobernabilidad y democratización, La Paz, Plural Editores; NCCR North-South, pp. 149-181

Available for purchase from: Libros Andinos

Gobernanza en salud

Un aporte conceptual y analítico para la investigación

Marc Hufty, Ernesto Bascolo, Roberto Bazzani, 2006

Governance in health: a conceptual and analytical approach to research

"In the Latin American region there is a notable absence of conceptual coherency in the use of the terms governability and governance. This is true for their application to both the social and political sciences and health. Researchers’ understanding of governance varies, and the concept is used heterogeneously within academic circles, with ignorance of the term on the part of decisionmakers and great confusion and ambiguity in the meanings used by researchers and decisionmakers in the health sector. Instead of the prevailing normative use, promoted by most international agencies, a conceptual and analytical framework for governance is proposed here for health systems and services research. Advances in the design of this framework were used to evaluate the public health insurance program in Buenos Aires, Argentina, which allowed the use of the analytical framework to be assessed as a tool for systemizing the social, political, and institutional complexity of the health policy formulation and implementation processes."

Cadernos de Saúde Pública / Reports in Public Health 2006, Vol. 22, Sup: S35-S45

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Gouvernance des forêts et conservation en Bolivie

Marc Hufty, Patrick Bottazzi, 2005

In: Auroi C, Milbert I., Hufty M. Où va la Bolivie?

Intégration de la population dans les mesures de protection

Marc Hufty, 2006

"La mise en place d’aires protégées est un instrument essentiel pour la conservation de la diversité biologique. Mais elle ne peut aboutir que si les mesures de protection tiennent compte des besoins de la population locale."

Hotspot 2006, No. 14, p. 11

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L’objet gouvernance

Marc Hufty, 2005

In: Hufty M, Freire A, Plagnat P (Ed). 2005. Jeux de gouvernance: Regards et réflexions sur un concept. Cahier des jeunes chercheurs de l’IUED. Paris Karthala.

La biodiversité dans les relations Nord / Sud

Coopération ou conflit?

Marc Hufty, 2006

La revue internationale et stratégique 2006, No. 60, pp. 150-159

Available from: Institut de relations internationales et stratégique

La gouvernance internationale de la biodiversité

Marc Hufty, 2001

Etudes internationales 2001, Vol. 32, No.1, pp. 5-29

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Le développement durable et sa gouvernance

Un conflit entre modèles de civilisation insoluble localement

Marc Hufty, 2006

Natures Sciences Sociétés 2006, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 163-165

Available for purchase from: EDP Sciences

Le soja en Amérique du Sud ou le cauchemar de Humboldt

Marc Hufty, 2006

"En apparence, la culture du soja est une chance pour l’Argentine, la Bolivie, le Brésil et le Paraguay. Elle apporte à ces pays une manne financière bienvenue. Mais ses conséquences pour la forêt, le sol, la biodiversité, l’eau et - surtout - les populations locales rendent cette réussite économique dérisoire. Quelques mouvements d’opposition tentent de faire entendre leur voix, mais ils restent démunis face à la demande mondiale de soja."

La Revue Durable 2006, No. 20, pp. 46-47

Available from: LaRevueDurable

Peuples indigènes et citoyenneté en Amérique latine

Entre adaptation et résistance à l'ordre mondial

Marc Hufty, Patrick Bottazzi, 2006

In: Géraldine Froger, editor. 2006. La mondialisation contre le développement durable? Bruxelles, Peter Lang. pp. 181-197

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Die Schweiz etabliert ein neuartiges EZ-Instrument

Hans Hurni, Peter Messerli, Franziska Pfister, 2004

"Bildung und Forschung sind die Schlüssel zur nachhaltigen Linderung der Armut und Umweltzerstörung in den Ländern des Südens und Ostens. Der dazu nötige Kompetenzaufbau vor Ort zur selbständigen Lösung der Probleme ist das Ziel des Schweizerischen Nationalen Forschungsschwerpunkts Nord-Süd (NCCR North-South). Drei Jahre nach dem Start dieses neuartigen, auf 12 Jahre angelegten Programms hat sich die internationale Forschungspartnerschaft mit Ländern des Südens erfolgreich als eigenständiges Element der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit etabliert."

Zeitschrift Entwicklungspolitik 2004, No. 18/19, pp. 54-56

Available from: Zeitschrift Entwicklungspolitik

Land Degradation and Runoff Changes in the Highlands of Ethiopia

Hans Hurni, Salomon Abate , Amare Bantider, Berhanu Debele, Eva Ludi, Birru Yitaferu, Gete Zeleke, 2008

The Ethiopian Highlands constitute 50% of the country and were once forested to a large extent. Nowadays, merely 20% are covered by trees (3% by closed forest), evidencing a high extent of agricultural activities in the historic past and up to today. The consequences are land degradation, and there is increased direct runoff in the highlands and to the lowlands.

Poster presented at the International Conference on Research for Development (ICRD), National Centre of Competence in Research NCCR North-South, University of Bern. 02-04 July 2008, Bern.

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Nachhaltige Entwicklung in Afrika: globale Agenda und lokales Handeln

Hans Hurni, 2007

In: Bearth, Barbara Becker, Rolf Kappel, Gesine Krüger, Roger Pfister, editors. 2007. Thomas Afrika im Wandel. vdf Hochschulverlag AG, ETH Zürich, pp. 123-136

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Nachhaltige Entwicklung und Risikomanagement in Gebirgsräumen

Eine Einführung

Hans Hurni, Andreas Kläy, Daniel Maselli, 2003

In: Jeanneret, F., Wastl-Walter, D., Wiesmann, U., Schwyn, M., (eds). 2003. Welt der Alpen - Gebirge der Welt. Ressourcen, Akteure, Perspektiven. Bern: Haupt. ISBN: 978-3-258-06624-0, pp. 95-102

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Putting soils higher on the international agenda

Hans Hurni, Markus Giger, Konrad Meyer, 2006

Soils on the global agenda: The report provides an overview of international actions concerned with sustainable land management, based on contributions from members of the IASUS (International Actions for the Sustainable Use of Soil) network made at the Eurosoil Symposium. It also aims to concretise possible follow-up actions. On the occasion of the ISRIC workshop “World Soils Issues and Sustainable Development” held on 10 March 2006, the creation of a World Soils Council (WSC) was initiated. The report presents in its final chapter the WSC’s proposed vision, objectives, and structure. The report was produced by IASUS, a working group of the International Union of Soil Sciences (IUSS), with support from CDE and financing from SDC. This publication is a follow-up of: A World Soils Agenda

In: Hans Hurni, Markus Giger, and Konrad Meyer, editors. 2006. Soils on the global agenda. Developing International Mechanisms for Sustainable Land Management. IASUS Working Group of the International Union of Soil Sciences (IUSS). Centre for Development and Environment, Bern. pp. 4-15

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Simen Mountains World Heritage Site in Northern Ethiopia

Hans Hurni, Eva Ludi, 2007

In: Hurni H, Bantider A, Herweg K, Portner B, Veit, H, editors. Landscape Transformation and Sustainable Development in Ethiopia. Background information for a study tour through Ethiopia, 4-20 September 2006. Bern: Centre for Development and Environment, University of Bern.

The Implications of Changes in Population, Land Use, and Land Management for Surface Runoff in the Upper Nile Basin Area of Ethiopia

Hans Hurni, Kebede Tato, Gete Zeleke, 2005

Much concern has been raised about population increase in the highlands of Ethiopia and its potential to decrease runoff from the upper Nile Basin to the lowland countries of Sudan and Egypt. The present article examines long-term data on population, land use, land management, rainfall, and surface runoff rates from small test plots (30 m2) and micro-catchments (73–673 ha) in the highlands of Ethiopia and Eritrea. Analysis and interpretation of data support the hypothesis that surface runoff and sediment yield from the Ethiopian and Eritrean highlands into the upper Nile Basin have most probably increased in the long term due to intensified land use and land degradation induced by population increase, when seen in a historical perspective.

Mountain Research and Development 2005, Vol. 25, No. 2, pp. 147–154

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The IUSS World Soils Agenda

Background, tasks, and consequences for policies.

Hans Hurni, 2006

Soils on the global agenda: The report provides an overview of international actions concerned with sustainable land management, based on contributions from members of the IASUS (International Actions for the Sustainable Use of Soil) network made at the Eurosoil Symposium. It also aims to concretise possible follow-up actions. On the occasion of the ISRIC workshop “World Soils Issues and Sustainable Development” held on 10 March 2006, the creation of a World Soils Council (WSC) was initiated. The report presents in its final chapter the WSC’s proposed vision, objectives, and structure. The report was produced by IASUS, a working group of the International Union of Soil Sciences (IUSS), with support from CDE and financing from SDC. This publication is a follow-up of: A World Soils Agenda (2002)

In: Hans Hurni, Markus Giger, and Konrad Meyer, editors. 2006. Soils on the global agenda. Developing International Mechanisms for Sustainable Land Management. IASUS Working Group of the International Union of Soil Sciences (IUSS). Centre for Development and Environment, Bern. pp. 18-25

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The Tajik Pamirs: Recommendations for a sustainable development strategy in Gorno Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast (GBAO)

Hans Hurni, Thomas Breu, 2003

The Tajik Pamirs: Challenges of Sustainable Development in an Isolated Mountain Region: The present publication provides a summary of the outcomes of the Pamir Strategy Project (PSP). It portrays life in the Pamirs, along with development challenges and options, and presents practical and participatory approaches that can lead to sustainable mountain development. In addition, this publication outlines the lessons learnt within the PSP by presenting and evaluationg methods and apporaches such as participatory village studies, multi-level stakeholder workshops for strategy development, knowledge generation processes, and Geographic Information Systmes as decision support tools for sustainable mountain development.

In: Breu T, and Hurni H, editors. The Tajik Pamirs. Challenges of Sustainable Development in an Isolated Mountain Region. Bern: Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), University of Bern, pp 70-71.

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The Tajik Pamirs: Towards a methodological framework for strategy development

Hans Hurni, Thomas Breu, Thomas Heimgartner, 2003

The Tajik Pamirs: Challenges of Sustainable Development in an Isolated Mountain Region: The present publication provides a summary of the outcomes of the Pamir Strategy Project (PSP). It portrays life in the Pamirs, along with development challenges and options, and presents practical and participatory approaches that can lead to sustainable mountain development. In addition, this publication outlines the lessons learnt within the PSP by presenting and evaluationg methods and apporaches such as participatory village studies, multi-level stakeholder workshops for strategy development, knowledge generation processes, and Geographic Information Systmes as decision support tools for sustainable mountain development.

In: Breu T, and Hurni H, editors. The Tajik Pamirs. Challenges of Sustainable Development in an Isolated Mountain Region. Bern: Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), University of Bern, pp 64-69.

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Prioritization of prevention activities to combat the spread of HIV/AIDS in resource constrained settings

A cost-effectiveness analysis from Chad, Central Africa

G. Hutton, Yemadji N’Diékhor , Kaspar Wyss, 2003

"In Chad, as in most sub-Saharan Africa countries, HIV/AIDS poses a massive public health threat as well as an economic burden, with prevalence rates estimated at 9% of the adult population. In defining and readjusting the scope and content of the national HIV/AIDS control activities, policy makers sought to identify the most cost-effective options for HIV/AIDS control. The cost-effectiveness analysis reported in this paper uses a mixture of local and international information sources combined with appropriate assumptions to model the cost-effectiveness of feasible HIV prevention options in Chad, with estimates of the budget impact. The most cost-effective options at under US$100 per infection prevented were peer group education of sex workers and screening of blood donors to identify infected blood before transfusion. These options were followed by mass media and peer group education of high risk men and young people, at around US$500 per infection prevented. Anti-retroviral therapy for HIV infected pregnant women and voluntary counselling and testing were in the order of US$1000 per infection prevented. The paper concludes with recommendations for which activities should be given priority in the next phase of the national HIV/AIDS control programme in Chad."

The International Journal of Health Planning and Management 2003, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 117-136

Available from: Wiley InterScience

Droughts and famines: The underlying factors and the causal links among agro-pastoral households in semi-arid Makueni district, Kenya

Chinwe Ifejika Speranza, Boniface Kiteme, Urs Wiesmann, 2008

"Famines are often linked to drought in semi-arid areas of Sub-Saharan Africa where not only pastoralists, but also increasingly agro-pastoralists are affected. This study addresses the interplay between drought and famine in the rural semi-arid areas of Makueni district, Kenya, by examining whether, and how crop production conditions and agro-pastoral strategies predispose smallholder households to drought-triggered food insecurity. If this hypothesis holds, then approaches to deal with drought and famine have to target factors causing household food insecurity during non-drought periods. Data from a longitudinal survey of 127 households, interviews, workshops, and daily rainfall records (1961–2003) were analysed using quantitative and qualitative methods. This integrated approach confirms the above hypothesis and reveals that factors other than rainfall, like asset and labour constraints, inadequate policy enforcement, as well as the poverty-driven inability to adopt risk-averse production systems play a key role. When linking these factors to the high rainfall variability, farmer-relevant definitions and forecasts of drought have to be applied."

Global Environmental Change 2008, Vol. 18, Issue 1, pp. 220-233.

Available from: Global Environmental Change

Gender Based Analysis of Vulnerability to Drought among Agro-Pastoral Households in Semi-Arid Makueni District, Kenya

Chinwe Ifejika Speranza, 2006

This study analyses how gender relations shape vulnerability to drought in the semi-arid areas of Makueni District, Kenya. The study area is a marginal environment of low argicultural potential and poverty is widespread. The interplay and socio-economic pressures on agro-pastoral households, and the compulsion to conform or to be perceived as conforming to the prevailing gendered traditional rules and norms, influences the capabilities of men and women to secure their livelihoods in non-drought periods. In times of drought, gender relations also shape the coping strategies of women and men in various ways, and the impacts of drought on household welfare challenge the traditional roles of men.

In:Premchander S, Müller C, editors. 2006. Gender and Sustainable Development: Case Studies from NCCR North-South. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, Bern: Geographica Bernensia, pp. 119-146.

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Indigenous knowledge related to climate variability and change: insights from droughts in semi-arid areas of former Makueni District, Kenya.

Chinwe Ifejika Speranza, Peter Ambenje, Boniface Kiteme, Samuel Makali, Urs Wiesmann, 2010

This article describes the indigenous knowledge (IK) that agro pastoralists in larger Makueni District, Kenya hold and how they use it to monitor, mitigate and adapt to drought. It examines ways of integrating IK into formal monitoring, how to enhance its value and acceptability. Data was collected through target interviews, group discussions and questionnaires covering 127 households in eight villages. Daily rainfall data from 1961–2003 were analysed. Results show that agro-pastoralists hold IK on indicators of rainfall variability; they believe in IK efficacy and they rely on them. Because agro-pastoralists consult additional sources, the authors interpret that IK forms a basic knowledge frame within which agro-pastoralists position and interpret meteorological forecasts. [...]

Climatic Change. doi:10.1007/s10584-009-9713-0

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Strengthening policies and institutions to support adaptation to climate variabiliy and change in the drylands of East Africa

Chinwe Ifejika Speranza, Elias Ayiemba, Eva Ludi, Gimbage Ernest Mbeyale, Davis Mwamfupe , Paul Ong'Anyi, 2010

We analysed how policies in Tanzania and Kenya address the strategies of agro-pastoralists for coping with and adapting to climate variability and climate change, based on data from semi-structured household surveys, group discussions, policy documents and other material. Many policies indirectly address climate variability and change by focusing on drought, suggesting that some form of mainstreaming already exists. We show that by integrating the perspective of agro-pastoralists, i.e. the majority of the rural poor, policies and pro-poor adaptation strategies can be strengthened.

In: Hurni H, Wiesmann U, editors. Global Change and Sustainable Development: A Synthesis of Regional Experiences from Research Partnerships. Perspectives of the NCCR North-South, University of Bern, Vol. 5. Bern, Switzerland: Geographica Bernensia, pp 107-130.

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Cotreatment of sewage and septage in waste stabilization ponds

A.M. Ingallinella, R.G. Fernández, Agnes Montangero, Graciela Sanguinetti, Martin Strauss, 2002

"A one year study was carried out in a waste stabilization ponds system where septage and sewage are cotreated. The system consists of two septage ponds which operate alternately followed by two ponds in series which receive the combined effluent. The septage ponds also act as evaporation ponds for the accumulated sludge. The monitoring program was divided in two phases. The results of the first phase indicate that the effluent of septage ponds has an adequate quality to be discharged into the waste stabilization ponds designed to treat sewage and that is possible to use the septage ponds to dry the accumulated sludge. Further investigation is needed to find suitable post-treatment of the sludge in order to use it in agriculture."

Water Science & Technology 2002, Vol .45, No. 1, pp. 9–15

Available from: IWA Publishing

The Challenge of Faecal Sludge Management in Urban Areas

Strategies, Regulations and Treatment Options

A.M. Ingallinella, Thammarat Koottatep, Agnes Montangero, Graciela Sanguinetti, Martin Strauss, 2002

In urban centres of industrialising countries, the majority of houses are served by on-site sanitation systems such as septic tanks and unsewered toilets. The faecal sludges (FS) collected from these systems are usually discharged untreated into the urban and peri-urban environment, posing great risks to water resources and to public health. Contrary to wastewater management, the development of strategies to cope with faecal sludges, adapted to the conditions prevailing in developing countries, have long been neglected. The authors describe the current situation and discuss selected issues of FS management. A proposal is made for a rational setting of sludge quality or treatment standards in economically emerging countries [...].

Water Science and Technology 2002, Vol. 46, No. 10, pp. 285-294.

Available for purchase from: IWA Publishing

Problems of managing water resources for the irrigation systems of Kyrgyzstan under market economy conditions

Fundatmental problems of studying and using water and water resources

Natalia Ivanova, Bakyt Askaraliev, Viktor Bilenko, G. Frolova, 2005

Presentation on Irrkutsk Scientific Conference.

In Russian

Irrkutsk Scientific Conference, Institute of Geography, pp. 185 - 187.

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Migration trends from Pakistan

Maqsood Ahmed Jan, 2008

There are several forms of international migration from Pakistan towards many regions: North America, European Union states, Persian Gulf and East Asia. These forms of trans-border movement vary extensively over time and place of destination. Pakistan was also among the other countries that supplied work force to European progression towards industrialization in the 1950s. That trend changed in the 1970s when geo-political changes and economic configurations resulted in sharp decline in expatriate labor to Europe. Later that trend transformed into re-unification of immediate family members of settled migrant workers and immigration to North America. Migration to East Asia and specifically to Persian Gulf States is of more significance both in terms of numbers and the new pattern of return migration due to short contractual arrangements.

Available from: SPDI

Community Perceptions and Priorities for Managing Water and Environmental Resources in the River Njoro Watershed in Kenya

M. W. Jenkins , L. W. Chiuri, Francis K. Lelo, S. N. Miller, W. A. Shivoga, 2009

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VIH/sida, genre et vulnérabilité

Lutte contre la vulnérabilité des femmes infectées par une association de femmes vivant avec le VIH/sida à Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire)

Cléopâtre Kablan, Guéladio Cissé, Brigit Obrist, Marcel Tanner, Ismaïla Touré, Kaspar Wyss, 2006

"L'une des préoccupations majeures qui apparaît lorsqu'on s'intéresse au VIH/sida dans les pays du sud, est celle de la vulnérabilité des femmes infectées. Face à cette vulnérabilité, quelles réponses une association de femmes vivant avec le VIH/sida peut-elle apporter ? Pour répondre à cette question, nous avons mené une enquête de terrain auprès d'une association de femmes vivant avec le VIH/sida à Abidjan. Cette enquête qui a combiné approche quantitative et approche qualitative visait à cerner les réponses de l'association face aux risques auxquels sont exposées ces femmes. Les résultats indiquent que face à la vulnérabilité des femmes qui se traduit soit par une rupture des liens sociaux soit par le silence imposé par le risque d'une telle rupture, les soutiens moral, matériel et financier constituent les principales actions menées par l'association."

VertigO - la revue électronique en sciences de l'environnement 2006, hors série 3, Article 6

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"I am the head of the household now"

The Impacts of Outmigration for Labour on Gender Hierarchies in Nepal

Heidi Kaspar, 2006

In: Premchander S, Müller C, editors. 2006. Gender and Sustainable Development: Case Studies from NCCR North-South. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, Bern: Geographica Bernensia, pp. 285-303.


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Ethnic Federalism, Exclusion and Human Insecurity threats to Minority Farming Groups in Soami Region

A case study of Garrimarro in Dollo Odo/Ado District (Wereda), the Somali Region, Ethiopia

Getachew Kassa, 2006

Research Report

Cost-description of a pilot parenteral vaccination campaign against rabies in dogs in N'Djaména, Chad

U. Kayali, G. Hutton, R. Mindekem, Guelmbaye Ndoutamia, Jakob Zinsstag, 2006

"In the discussion about policies and strategies for rabies prevention in developing countries, intervention costs arise as a major issue. In a pilot mass vaccination campaign against rabies in N'Djaména, Chad, 3000 dogs were vaccinated. We assessed vaccination coverage and cost, showing the cost per dog vaccinated for the public sector and for society. An extrapolation to city level calculated the approximate cost of vaccinating all 23 600 dogs in N'Djaména. In the pilot mass campaign with 3000 dogs the average cost per dog was 1.69 €. to the public and the full societal cost was 2.45 €. If all 23 600 dogs in N'Djaména were vaccinated, the average cost would fall to 1.16 € to the public and 1.93 € to society. Private sector costs account for 31% of the cost to vaccinate 3000 dogs, and 40% of the cost to vaccinate 23 600 dogs. Mass dog vaccination could be a comparatively cheap and ethical way to both control the disease in animals and prevent human cases and exposure, especially in developing countries. The cost-effectiveness of dog vaccination compared with treating victims of dog bites for prevention of human rabies should be further assessed and documented."

Tropical Medicine & International Health 2006, Vol. 11, Issue 7, pp. 1058

Available for purchase from: Blackwell Synergy

Coverage of pilot parenteral vaccination campaign against canine rabies in N’Djaména, Chad

U. Kayali, Y. Kaninga, R. Mindekem, Yemadji N’Diékhor , Guelmbaye Ndoutamia, Penelope Vounatsou, Jakob Zinsstag, 2003

"Canine rabies, and thus human exposure to rabies, can be controlled through mass vaccination of the animal reservoir if dog owners are willing to cooperate. Inaccessible, ownerless dogs, however, reduce the vaccination coverage achieved in parenteral campaigns. This study aimed to estimate the vaccination coverage in dogs in three study zones of N’Djaména, Chad, after a pilot free parenteral mass vaccination campaign against rabies. We used a capture–mark–recapture approach for population estimates, with a Bayesian, Markov chain, Monte Carlo method to estimate the total number of owned dogs, and the ratio of ownerless to owned dogs to calculate vaccination coverage. When we took into account ownerless dogs, the vaccination coverage in the dog populations was 87% (95% confidence interval (CI), 84–89%) in study zone I, 71% (95% CI, 64–76%) in zone II, and 64% (95% CI, 58–71%) in zone III. The proportions of ownerless dogs to owned dogs were 1.1% (95% CI, 0–3.1%), 7.6% (95% CI, 0.7–16.5%), and 10.6% (95% CI, 1.6–19.1%) in the three study zones, respectively. Vaccination coverage in the three populations of owned dogs was 88% (95% CI, 84–92%) in zone I, 76% (95% CI, 71–81%) in zone II, and 70% (95% CI, 66–76%) in zone III. Participation of dog owners in the free campaign was high, and the number of inaccessible ownerless dogs was low. High levels of vaccination coverage could be achieved with parenteral mass vaccination. Regular parenteral vaccination campaigns to cover all of N’Djaména should be considered as an ethical way of preventing human rabies when post-exposure treatment is of limited availability and high in cost."

Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2003, Vol. 81, No. 10, pp. 739-744

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Incidence of canine rabies in N’Djaména, Chad

U. Kayali, R. Mindekem, Yemadji N’Diékhor , S. Naïssengar, Guelmbaye Ndoutamia, A. Oussiguéré, Jakob Zinsstag, 2003

"This work describes for the first time the incidence risk of passively reported canine rabies, and quantifies reported human exposure in N’Djaména (the capital of Chad). To diagnose rabies, we used a direct immunofluorescent-antibody test (IFAT). From January 2001 to March 2002, we were brought 34 rabies cases in dogs and three cases in cats. Canine cases were geographically clustered. The annual incidence risk of canine rabies was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.2, 1.7) per 1000 unvaccinated dogs. Most of the rabid dogs were owned—although free-roaming and not vaccinated against rabies. Most showed increased aggressiveness and attacked people without being provoked. Eighty-one persons were exposed to rabid dogs and four persons to rabid cats (mostly children<15 years old). Most of the exposed persons were neighbours or family members of the animal owner. Most exposures were transdermal bites, but nearly half of all exposed persons did not apply any first wound care or only applied a traditional treatment. In N’Djaména, humans are often exposed to canine rabies but do not use the full-course post-exposure treatment and wound care is insufficient. Most rabid dogs would be accessible to parenteral vaccination. Pilot vaccination campaigns are needed to determine the success of dog mass vaccination in N’Djaména as a way to prevent animal and human rabies."

Preventive Veterinary Medicine 2003, Vol. 61, Issue 3, pp. 227-233

Available from: ScienceDirect

Traintement de la pollution microbienne de l'eau par le rayonnement solaire: Puisse cette technologie être adapté à la potabilisation de l' eau de boisson pour les communautées rurales dans les pays à fort taux d' ensoleillement?

Simeon Kenfack, Guéladio Cissé, M. Kampara, AH. Maiga, C. Pulgarin, S. Rincón, 2005

Info CREPA no. 50, décembre 2005: 22-30.

Researching the future of pastoralism in Central Asia's mountains: Examining development orthodoxies

Carol Kerven, Laurie Ashley, Chad Dear, Bernd Steimann, 2012

This paper synthesizes research findings on contemporary mountain pastoralism in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, based on a longer review characterizing mountain agropastoralism in Central Asia. We focus here on the principal issues that have been emphasized over the past two decades in policy, programs, and projects regarding pastoralism in Central Asia's mountains. We conclude that this emphasis has largely been driven by two unproven orthodoxies about
- The extent and causes of pasture degradation; and
- The need for decentralization and pasture land privatization.

Kerven C, Steimann B, Dear C, Ashley L. 2012. Researching the future of pastoralism in Central Asia's mountains: Examining development orthodoxies. Mountain Research and Development 32(3):368-377.

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Accroissement des connaissances des acteurs et décideurs sur les risques sanitaires liés aux déchets (solides et liquides) en milieu urbain et sur les stratégies de prévention.

Kientga, Mathieu Kientga, Mathieu, 2006

Contribution des Systèmes d'Informations Géographiques à la maîtrise des risques sanitaires en milieu urbain dans les pays en voie de développement: Cas des liens Santé Déchets Croissance urbaine à Ouagadougou/Burkina Faso.

Kientga, Mathieu Kientga, Mathieu, 2006

Dimensions of global change in African mountains: The example of Mount Kenya

Boniface Kiteme, Thomas Kohler, Hanspeter Liniger, Benedikt Notter, Urs Wiesmann, 2008

This paper discusses the effects of global change in African mountains, with the example of Mount Kenya. The geographical focus is the northwestern, semi-arid foot zone of the mountain (Laikipia District). Over the past 50 years, this area has experienced rapid and profound transformation, the respective processes of which are all linked to global change. The main driving forces behind these processes have been political and economic in nature. To these an environmental change factor has been added in recent years – climate change.

Kiteme BP, Liniger HP, Notter B, Wiesmann U, Kohler T. 2008. Dimensions of global change in African mountains: The example of Mount Kenya. IDHP International Human Dimensions Programme. IHDP UPDATE 2:18-23.

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Exploring Pathways for Sustainable Development in the ASALs in Transition in Kenya

Boniface Kiteme, 2003

Kiteme BP, Wabwire PN. 2003. Exploring Pathways for Sustainable Development in the ASALs in Transition in Kenya. Proceedings of the JACS East Africa Syndromes Workshop, 15th May 2003, Nairobi.

JACS East Africa: The Example of Semi-Arid Lands Development

Boniface Kiteme, 2012

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Poster "CETRAD - The Regional JACS East Africa Office"

Boniface Kiteme, 2004

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Preventing and Resolving Water Use Conflicts in the Mount Kenya Highland–Lowland System through Water Users' Associations

Boniface Kiteme, John Gikonyo, 2002

"In recent decades, the Mount Kenya highland–lowland system, which includes the Ewaso Ngiro North Basin, has experienced complex ecological and socioeconomic dynamics. These are reflected in changing land use systems and practices as well as in a rapidly growing human population, especially in the footzones and adjacent lowlands. These changes have exerted unremitting pressure on water resources, especially because the demand for water by different user groups has continued to grow, against the backdrop of expensive alternative sources (rainwater and groundwater harvesting) and increasingly dwindling river water resources. As each of the user groups moves to make substantial claims to available river water, competition for the resource becomes even sharper, thus setting the stage for conflicts related to scarcity that intensify during the dry season, at times resulting in fatal physical conflicts among different user groups in the basin, especially between upstream and downstream users. Different approaches have been used to address these scarcity-related conflicts. The present article discusses Water Users' Associations as one of the most effective initiatives launched to address the problem of water use conflicts in the basin in the recent past."

Mountain Research and Development 2002, Volume 22, Issue 4, pp. 332-337

Available from: BioOne

Proceedings of the International Workshop on "Sustainable Regional Development in East Africa: Problems and Opportunities

Boniface Kiteme, 2002

Kiteme BP. 2002. Proceedings of the International Workshop on “Sustainable Regional Development in East Africa: Problems and Opportunities. Designing a Framework for long-term Collaborative Research and Action” held in Nanyuki, Kenya from 28 to 30 May 2001.

Proceedings of the JACS East Africa Workshop

Boniface Kiteme, 2003

Kiteme BP. 2003. Proceedings of the JACS East Africa Workshop held in Nanyuki, Kenya from 16-21 February 2003.

Programme and Information RTC 2007, Kenya

Boniface Kiteme, 2007

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Sustainable River Basin Management in Kenya: Balancing Needs and Requirements.

Boniface Kiteme, Urs Wiesmann, 2008

This chapter presents an example of transdisciplinarity based on 25 years of continuous research in the upper Ewaso Ng’iro north basin on the north-western slopes of Mount Kenya. It shows how the research facility evolved from a district and project planning support institution, based on needs, to a regionally oriented and integrated facility addressing the requirements of sustainability. Projecting on the basis of long-term implications of changes in ecological processes and socio-economic and institutional dynamics on water availability, research activities were embedded in a multilevel, multistakeholder transfer strategy to ensure integration of scientific and local knowledge systems and long-term ownership of preferred interventions. In conclusion, the chapter lists seven recommendations on salient issues of transdisciplinary research.

In: Hirsch Hadorn et al, editors. Handbook of Transdisciplinary Research. Springer Verlag, pp 63-78.

Available from: ScienceDirect

Understanding the Complex Process of Social Marginalization: Analysis of Causes and Pathways towards Sustainable Development in Semi Arid Areas in Transition

Boniface Kiteme, Samuel Makali, 2012

Kiteme BP, Makali SK. 2004. Understanding the Complex Process of Social Marginalization: Analysis of Causes and Pathways towards Sustainable Development in Semi Arid Areas in Transition. Proceedings of JACS East Africa Syndromes Workshop, 28th October 2003, Egerton University, Njoro.

Re-evaluating the burden of rabies in Africa and Asia

Darryn L. Knobel, Sarah Cleaveland, Paul G. Coleman, Eric M. Fèvre, Martin I. Meltzer, François-Xavier Meslin, M. Elizabeth G. Miranda, Alexandra Shaw, Jakob Zinsstag, 2005

Rabies remains an important yet neglected disease in Africa and Asia. Disparities in the affordability and accessibility of post-exposure treatment and risks of exposure to rabid dogs result in a skewed distribution of the disease burden across society, with the major impact falling on those living in poor rural communities, in particular children.

Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2005, Vol. 83, Number 5, pp. 321-400

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Seasonal epidemiology of ticks and aspects of cowdriosis in N’Dama village cattle in the Central Guinea savannah of Côte d’Ivoire

Lea Knopf, B. Betschart, B. Gottstein, F. Jongejan, C. Komoin-Otaka, Jakob Zinsstag, 2002

In the Central Guinea savannah of Côte d’Ivoire, cattle breeding started only 30 years ago. The impact of parasitism on the overall health status and productivity of the trypanotolerant N’Dama cattle in this area is unknown. In close collaboration with national veterinary institutions and local farmers, we studied spectrum, burden and seasonal dynamics of ticks (including aspects of cowdriosis) on N’Dama village cattle.

Preventive Veterinary Medicine 2002, Vol. 53, Issues 1-2, pp. 21-30

Available online from: ScienceDirect

Mountain infrastructure: Access, communications, and energy

Thomas Kohler, Hans Hurni, Andreas Kläy, Urs Wiesmann, 2004

In: Price MF, Jansky L, Iatsenia AA, editors. 2004. Key issues for mountain areas. Tokyo, New York, Paris: United Nations University Press, pp. 38-62

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Mountains: Special Places to be Protected?

An analysis of worldwide nature conservation efforts in mountains

Michael Kollmair, Ghana Gurung, Kaspar Hurni, Daniel Maselli, 2005

Mountains are regularly a focus of international efforts to conserve the environment and promote sustainable development. The present article analyses the extent of protection in mountainous compared to non-mountainous areas, sheds light on the rationales behind the establishment of mountain protected areas, and proposes directions for future conservation endeavours with reference to mountain protected areas.

The International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management 2005, Volume 1, Number 4, pp. 181-189(9)

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New Figures for Old Stories: Migration and Remittances in Nepal

Michael Kollmair, Siddhi Manandhar, Bhim P. Subedi, Susan Thieme, 2006

"Labour migration and remittances are major economic mainstays for Nepal’s economy. However, there is still insufficient documentation on scale and significance of this process. Estimations of migration figures suggest that real numbers are several times higher than official statistics show. Therefore this article contributes to the emerging debate of the last years comparing latest national statistics with own empirical data. The paper concludes that the total numbers of migrants calculated by the authors closely corresponds with official statistics, while amount of remittances seems to be higher indeed, highlighting once more that labour migration and remittances are an important mainstay of Nepal’s economy."

Migration Letters 2006, Vol. 3, Issue 2, pp. 151-160

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Etude de la morbidité palustre à l’Hôpital Général d’Adiaké, Côte d’Ivoire de 1998 à 2000

Atioumouna Kone, B. V. J. Benié, N. S. Dagnan, K. D. Ekra, B. Kakou, E. Konan, J. Tagliante-Saracino, I. Tiembré, P. Zengbé, 2005

Notre travail est une étude rétrospective de la morbidité palustre sur 3 ans (de 1998 à 2000) dans un hôpital général situé en zone lagunaire (Adiaké).
Il ressort de cette étude que le tiers (34,79 %) des patients ayant consulté présentait un paludisme et que plus de la moitié des hospitalisations étaient des cas de paludisme. Nous avons noté une légère prédominance féminine (52,11 %) en consultation. La population infanto-juvénile était la plus touchée tant en consultation qu’en hospitalisation avec respectivement 58,38 % et 54,97 % ; elle concerne surtout la tranche d’âge de 1 à 4 ans.
Le mois de Juillet pendant ces trois années a enregistré le plus de cas de paludisme. Nous avons constaté que le paludisme se transmet toute l’année avec une légère prédominance à la grande saison des pluies. La principale complication du paludisme qui a occasionné une hospitalisation était l’anémie (82,62 %) qui avait touché les enfants de 0 à 15 ans dans 88, 29 % des cas et les adultes dans 11,71 % des cas. Le paludisme représentait la principale cause de décès en hospitalisation. Ces décès étaient dus dans 81,84 % à l’anémie.

Médecine d'Afrique Noire 2005, No. 5203, pp. 188-192

Free online version available from: Médecine d'Afrique Noire.
Hard copy available from: Médecine d'Afrique Noire.

Impact de la démoustication sur les populations d’Aedes aegypti de deux communes de la ville d’Abidjan (Port-Bouët et Yopougon), Côte d'Ivoire

Atioumouna Kone, P. Carnevale, N. S. Dagnan, J. Tagliante-Saracino, I. Tiembré, 2005

Devant les résultats nous pouvons conclure que les pulvérisation aériennes spatiales d'insecticides permettent de réduire les densités de moustique en général et d'Aedes aegypti en particulier mais que cette réduction est de courte durée. Cette réduction est beaucoup plus marquée sur les populations exophagues que d'endophagues d'où la nécessité de tenir compte de la bio écologie des moustiques lors de l'application de cette technique.

Dakar Médical 2005, Vol. 50, No. 3, pp. 113-117

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Importance des pneus abandonnés dans la prolifération d’Aedes aegypti en milieu urbain

Cas de la ville de Sassandra

Atioumouna Kone, K. Adou, B. V. J. Benié, N. S. Dagnan, K. D. Ekra, L. Kouadio, K. P. Odéhouri, I. Tiembré, 2006

L’analyse montre que les pneus abandonnés représentent en moyenne 50% de l’ensemble des gîtes larvaires de la ville de Sassandra. Ils sont les plus productifs car 70% d’entre eux en moyenne contiennent des larves d’Aedes aegypti. Ainsi, ce travail met en évidence, le rôle prépondérant que jouent les pneus abandonnés dans la prolifération d’Aedes aegytpi dans la ville de Sassandra. Ainsi, la lutte antivectorielle prend une place de choix dans la lutte contre la fièvre jaune.

Médecine d’Afrique Noire 2006, Vol. 53, No. 3, pp. 167-170

Hard copy available from: Médecine d'Afrique Noire.

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Revalorisation des déchets solides plastiques à la zone industrielle de Yopougon (Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire) et risques sanitaires associés

Brama Koné, Guéladio Cissé, Simeon Kenfack, 2007

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Vulnérabilité et résilience des populations riveraines liées à la pollution des eaux lagunaires de la métropole d'Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire

Brama Koné, Guéladio Cissé, Pascal Valentin Houenou, Brigit Obrist, Peter Odermatt, Marcel Tanner, Kaspar Wyss, 2006

"La lagune d'Abidjan est polluée par les déchets urbains. Les populations périurbaines, riveraines de cette lagune sont exposées à la pollution. L'étude porte sur l'évaluation des aspects de vulnérabilité et de résilience des populations exposées. Neuf "focus groups" ou groupes de discussion ont été réalisés sur trois sites qui bordent la lagune. Les populations étudiées se disent victimes de "la ville". Les aspects de leur vulnérabilité rapportés par elles sont entre autres les mauvaises odeurs qui émanent des eaux lagunaires, les mouches et moustiques qui se multiplient en lagune et qui leur apportent des maladies comme le paludisme et les diarrhées, les démangeaisons de corps dont les pêcheurs se plaignent. En ce qui concerne les aspects de résilience, des actions individuelles d'entretien des berges lagunaires sont menées par endroit. Le capital financier, humain et social des malades ou de leur famille joue un rôle important dans leur résilience en cas de maladie."

VertigO - la revue électronique en sciences de l'environnement 2006, hors série 3, Article 5

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Integrated faecal sludge treatment and recycling through constructed wetlands and sunflower plant irrigation

Thammarat Koottatep, Sukon Hadsoi, Chongrak Polprasert, 2006

"Faecal sludge (FS) from the on-site sanitation systems is a nutrient-rich source but can contain high concentrations of toxic metals and chemicals and infectious micro-organisms. The study employed 3 vertical-flow CW units, each with a dimension of 5×5×0.65 m (width×length×media depth) and planted with cattails (Typha augustifolia). At the solid loading rate of 250 kg total solids (TS)/m2.yr and a 6-day percolate impoundment, the CW system could achieve chemical oxygen demand (COD), TS and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) removal efficiencies in the range of 80–96%. A solid layer of about 80 cm was found accumulated on the CW bed surface after operating the CW units for 7 years, but no clogging problem has been observed. The CW percolate was applied to 16 irrigation sunflower plant (Helianthus annuus) plots, each with a dimension of 4.5×4.5 m (width×length). In the study, tap water was mixed with 20%, 80% and 100% of the CW percolate at the application rate of 7.5 mm/day. Based on a 1-year data in which 3 crops of plantation were experimented, the contents of Zn, Mn and Cu in soil of the experimental plots were found to increase with increase in CW percolate ratios. In a plot with 100% of CW percolate irrigation, the maximum Zn, Mn and Cu concentrations of 5.0, 12.3 and 2.5 mg/kg, respectively, were detected in the percolate-fed soil, whereas no accumulation of heavy metals in the plant tissues (i.e. leaves, stems and flowers) of the sunflower were detected. The highest plant biomass yield and oil content of 1000 kg/ha and 35%, respectively, were obtained from the plots fed with 20% or 50% of the CW percolate."

Water Science and Technology 2006, Vol. 54, No. 11-12, pp. 155–164

Available from: IWA Publishing

Research Partnerships for Sustainable Development in Southeast Asia

Highlights of the NCCR North-South Program in Southeast Asia, 2005-2009

Thammarat Koottatep, Antoine Morel, Chongrak Polprasert, Roland Schertenleib, 2009

Highlights of the work conducted over the past four years in Southeast Asia are the focus of a brochure just out. The brochure - Research Partnerships for Sustainable Development in Southeast Asia - was published by the NCCR North-South team based in Bangkok.

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Treatment of septage in constructed wetlands in tropical climate

Lessons learnt from seven years of operation

Thammarat Koottatep, Udo Heinss, A. S. M. Kamal, Doulaye Kone, Agnes Montangero, Chongrak Polprasert, Martin Strauss, Narong Surinkul, 2005

In tropical regions, where most of the developing countries are located, septic tanks and other onsite sanitation systems are the predominant form of storage and pre-treatment of excreta and wastewater, generating septage and other types of sludges. The septage is disposed of untreated, mainly due to lack of affordable treatment options. This study presents lessons that have been learned from the operation of pilot-scale constructed wetlands (CWs) for septage treatment since 1997. The experiments have been conducted by using three CW units planted with narrow-leave cattails (Typha augustifolia) and operating in a vertical-flow mode. Based on the experimental results, it can be suggested that the optimum solids loading rate be 250 kg TS/m2 yr and 6-day percolate impoundment. At these operational conditions, the removal efficiencies of CW units treating septage at the range of 80–96% for COD, TS and TKN were achieved. The biosolid accumulated on the CW units to a depth of 80 cm has never been removed during 7 years of operation, but bed permeability remained unimpaired. The biosolid contains viable helminth eggs below critical limit of sludge quality standards for agricultural use. Subject to local conditions, the suggested operational criteria should be reassessed at the full-scale implementation. Keywords Nutrient removal; operation; helminth eggs; septage treatment; vertical-flow constructed wetlands

Water Science and Technology 2005, Vol. 51, No. 9, pp. 119–126

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Wastewater Effluent Polishing Systems of Anaerobic Baffled Reactor Treating Black-water from Households

Thammarat Koottatep, Antoine Morel, Atitaya Panuvatvanich, 2006

"This paper presents the outcomes of pilot-scale experiments on anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) and polishing systems for the treatment of domestic blackwater, aimed at determining the treatment performance of different integrated low-cost wastewater treatment systems, comprising one ABR as first treatment step followed by three polishing steps operated in parallel, namely an anaerobic filter an intermittent sand filter and a vertical flow constructed wetland. A mixture of septage and domestic wastewater was used as influent wastewater, resulting in influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) concentrations of 1,000 and 300 mg/L, respectively. The ABR system operated at a HRT of 48h could achieve average COD, suspended solids (SS) and total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiencies of 90%, 93% and 50%, respectively. The highest treatment performances in the sand filter and constructed wetland units were reached at HLR of 7 – 10 and 6 – 10 cm/day, respectively, while HRT in the range of 3 - 4 days led to the highest treatment efficiencies in the anaerobic filter. The national effluent standards of Thailand were respected by all systems in terms of average TSS and BOD concentrations. Rather than concluding which system is the most appropriate, the paper discusses specific fields of application for the different systems."

Proceedings of the 7th Specialised Conference on Small Water and Wastewater Systems, 7-10 March 2006, Mexico City, Mexico

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Assessment of soil ecological state of Sokuluk River Basin

A. Kosenko, 2005

In Russian

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Effect of agricultural activities on prevalence rates, and clinical and presumptive malaria episodes in central Côte d'Ivoire

Benjamin G. Koudou, Guéladio Cissé, O. Girardin, Jennifer Keiser, Kouassi Klero, Mamadou Kone, Eliézer K. N'Goran, Marcel Tanner, Yao Tano, Jürg Utzinger, Penelope Vounatsou, 2009

Acta Tropica 111:268-274.

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Décentralisation participative et ethnicisation en Bolivie, 1994-2005

Laurent Lacroix, 2007

In: CESU [Centro de estudios universitarios superiores], CIDES [Postgrado multidisciplinario en ciencias del desarrollo], IFEA [Instituto francés de estudios andinos] , IRD [Institut de recherche pour le développement], Gobernabilidad y gobernanza de los territorios en América Latina, Cochabamba / La Paz: 94-118.

For further information, please contact the author.

Commentary - Save Darfur: A Movement and its Discontents

David Lanz, 2009

African Affairs 108 (433): 1-9.

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Erosion Damage Mapping: Assessing Current Soil Erosion Damage in Switzerland

Thomas Ledermann, Karl Herweg, Hans Hurni, Hanspeter Liniger, V. Prasuhn, Flurina Schneider , 2009

Advances in GeoEcology 39:263-283

Verbreitung der Direktsaat in der Schweiz

Ledermann, Thomas Ledermann, Thomas, Flurina Schneider , 2009

Agrarforschung 15(8):408-413

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Managing Riparian Resources in the River Njoro Watershed in Kenya: The Challenge of Conflicting Laws, Policies and Community Priorities

Francis K. Lelo, M. W. Jenkins , C Wanjiku, 2005

Assessing and Managing Scarce Tropical Mountain Water Resources

The Case of Mount Kenya and the Semiarid Upper Ewaso Ng'iro Basin

Hanspeter Liniger, John Gikonyo, Boniface Kiteme, Urs Wiesmann, 2005

The present article documents increasing water abstraction and the difficulties in establishing limits for low flows such as the Q80 value (flow available on 80% of the days per year). The article also presents the role of Water Users' Associations (WUAs) in mitigating water conflicts related to over-abstraction. Evaluation of the activities of 13 WUAs showed that they solved 45 of 52 conflicts. WUAs are also involved in activities such as environmental education, awareness creation, improved irrigation practices, afforestation, and regulating water. The recent restructuring of the government ministry resulted in a formalized role for WUAs. Long-term data on availability, abstraction, and use of water are needed to mitigate water conflicts within and between WUAs, negotiate water allocation, and establish allocation thresholds.

Mountain Research and Development 2005, Volume 25, Issue 2, pp. 163–173

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Enhanced Decision-Making Based on Local Knowledge

The WOCAT Method of Sustainable Soil and Water Management

Hanspeter Liniger, Gudrun Schwilch, 2002

Many types of problems caused by land degradation can be documented worldwide. The main natural resources affected are soils, water, natural vegetation, and wildlife; but cultivated plants are exposed to even greater damage, which poses a threat to food security as well. Soil degradation is one of the most crucial processes of land degradation and environmental change. Over a quarter of the world's agricultural land has been damaged by long-term soil degradation, corresponding to one-tenth of the earth's land surface.
Every day land users and soil and water conservation (SWC) specialists evaluate experience and generate know-how related to land management, improvement of soil fertility, and protection of soil resources. Most of this valuable knowledge, however, is not well documented or easily accessible, and comparison of different types of experience is difficult. The World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies (WOCAT) has the mission of providing tools that allow SWC specialists to share their valuable knowledge in soil and water management, assist them in their search for appropriate SWC technologies and approaches, and support them in making decisions in the field and at the planning level.

Mountain Research and Development 2002, 22(1), pp. 14-18

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Towards sustainable land management

"Common sense" and some of the other key missing elements (the WOCAT experience)

Hanspeter Liniger, M. Douglas, Gudrun Schwilch, 2004

A recent review of the data gathered for the World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies (WOCAT) program revealed a number of the key elements, which if missing, will limit the effectiveness of local efforts to achieve sustainable land management. A review of the WOCAT database indicates a wealth of untapped knowledge but also knowledge gaps, especially concerning the coverage and impact of soil and water conservation (SWC). The methodology and tools developed by WOCAT have been used by SWC specialists for critical sharing and review of their often fragmented knowledge, development of a database, identification of gaps and contradictions, and questioning and evaluation of their current perceptions and field experiences. This process builds understanding and capacity to support successful advancement of SWC and helps to avoid expensive and demoralizing mistakes.

Proceedings of ISCO Conference 2004, Brisbane.

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"But now men also listen to the women"

Women’s-Development Approach in the Kangchenjunga Conservation Area Project, East Nepal

Martina Locher, Ulrike Müller-Böker, 2007

Asiatische Studien / Études Asiatiques 2007, LXI - 4/2007, pp. 1113-1139.

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"We could show the men, that we are able to do it"

Women's-Development Approach in the Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project, East Nepal

Martina Locher, 2006

In: Premchander S, Müller C, editors. 2006. Gender and Sustainable Development: Case Studies from NCCR North-South. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, Bern: Geographica Bernensia, pp. 267-284

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The Tajik Pamirs: Managing high pastures in the Eastern Pamirs

Eva Ludi, 2003

The Tajik Pamirs: Challenges of Sustainable Development in an Isolated Mountain Region: The present publication provides a summary of the outcomes of the Pamir Strategy Project (PSP). It portrays life in the Pamirs, along with development challenges and options, and presents practical and participatory approaches that can lead to sustainable mountain development. In addition, this publication outlines the lessons learnt within the PSP by presenting and evaluationg methods and apporaches such as participatory village studies, multi-level stakeholder workshops for strategy development, knowledge generation processes, and Geographic Information Systmes as decision support tools for sustainable mountain development.

In: Breu T, and Hurni H, editors. The Tajik Pamirs. Challenges of Sustainable Development in an Isolated Mountain Region. Bern: Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), University of Bern, pp 22-23.

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Umweltkonflikte – Katalysatoren für Kooperation?

Eva Ludi, 2003

In: Steinmetz, E (ed.). 2003. Naturschutz - (Aus-)Löser von Konflikten? Dokumentation einer Tagung des Bundesamtes für Naturschutz und der Heinrich Böll Stiftung vom 25. - 27. November 2002 in Berlin. pp. 73-81

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Les bassins hydrographiques internationaux

Conflits et gestion des ressources hydriques

Samuel Luzi, 2006

"Alors que le discours sur la « gestion de l'eau » privilégiait autrefois une approche axée sur l'ingénierie, il adopte désormais une perspective plus globale qui privilégie la protection de l'environnement, l'efficacité, ainsi que les aspects politiques et institutionnels de la gestion et de la planification intégrée et coopérative de l'eau. C'est la crainte d'une « guerre de l'eau » qui a permis d'accélérer l'intégration de la gestion de l'eau dans les bassins versants partagés ; les questions hydriques figurent désormais à l'ordre du jour de décideurs haut placés et d'organisations internationales spécialistes des questions de sécurité, et des cadres spécifiques ont été créés pour gérer les relations conflictuelles entre groupes d'opérateurs à différents niveaux."

Les Cahiers de la Sécurité 2006, No. 63, pp. 35-39

Available from: INHES

Community Based Land Resources Management in Kiverenge Village, Mwanga, Tanzania

C. Lyamchai, M. Kingamkono, Boniface Kiteme, Joseph Mathuwa, 2004

Lyamchai C, Kiteme BP, Mathuva JM, Kingamkono M. (in prep.): Community Based Land Resources Management in Kiverenge Village, Mwanga, Tanzania: The Application of SDA/PRA Methodologies. An ESAPP funded Project 2001-2002.

A Methodological Framework for Incorporating Socio-economic and Socio-political Issues and Dynamics in Forest Health Monitoring, Conservation and, Management in the Eastern Arc Mountains of Kenya and Tanzania

Seif Madoffe, Boniface Kiteme, ZK. Mvena, Urs Wiesmann, 2004

Madoffe S, Kiteme BP, Wiesmann U, Mvena ZK. 2004. A Methodological Framework for Incorporating Socio-economic and Socio-political Issues and Dynamics in Forest Health Monitoring, Conservation, and Management in the Eastern Arc Mountains of Kenya and Tanzania. Proceedings of the 6th Conference of the African Mountain Association.

Definition of environmental sanitation system for Hatsady Tai

D Maniseng, T. Chanthala, Antoine Morel, S. Thammanosouth, 2008

A description of steps 5 and 6 in the HCES planning approach conducted in Laos

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UESS Assessment Report

D Maniseng, T. Chanthala, Antoine Morel, S. Thammanosouth, 2008

Project report on outcomes of the HCES project step 3 in Hatdady Tai. Vientiane, Lao PDR.

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Improving Small Ruminant Production

A Pathway to Better Livelihoods in Three Test Valleys in Pakistan

Daniel Maselli, Eva Syfrig, Inam Ur-Rahim, 2005

"Livestock production is a key livelihood strategy and a way of life for most smallholders in the Hindukush. Depending on ethnicity, access to land, labor force, and ecological conditions, small to large herds of goats, sheep, cattle and buffalo serve as a primary or secondary source of livelihood. Ongoing deterioration of environmental conditions — frequently due to overgrazing — and the depletion of timber and firewood resources — often linked to demographic and economic pressure both in the highlands and the lowlands—increasingly worsen living conditions. Alternative livelihood strategies and pathways to more sustainable natural resource use are needed. [...]"

Mountain Research and Development 2005, Volume 25, Issue 2, pp. 104-108

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Making north-south research partnerships more effective

Reflections on how to best achieve impacts.

Daniel Maselli, 2007

Global Change in Mountain Regions: Mountain regions cover a quarter of the global land surface, and a quarter of the global population lives in or around them. They are the Earth’s ‘water towers’ and global centres of biological and cultural diversity. However, these important regions are increasingly influenced by various types of global change, from climate change to globalisation. The 200 extended abstracts in this book, prepared by experts on six continents, bring together the state of the art on many of these changes.

In: Price M F, editor. Global Change in Mountain Regions. Sapiens, Duncow, Dumfriesshire, UK, pp. 21-23

“Trickling down or spilling over?”

Exploring the links between international and sub-national water conflicts in the Eastern Nile and Syr Daria Basin

Simon Mason, Christine Bichsel, Tobias Hagmann, 2003

Paper presented at the ECPR Joint Sessions of Workshops, Edinburgh, 28 March to 2 April 2003

This paper focuses on the linkages between international and subnational water conflicts in the Eastern Nile and Syr Daria Basins. It follows the notion of “conflict system”, to conceptualize dynamic linkages between different “water conflict arenas”. The aim of our paper is to categorize possible linkages, describe examples and explore implications for water conflict mitigation, with the goal of a better problem-solving potential.

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Are we Scorpions? The Role of Upstream-Downstream Dialogue in fostering Cooperation in the Nile Basin

Simon Mason, 2005

Water consumed upstream does not flow downstream. Consequently, upstream–downstream relations along a shared river may entail competitive use or even conflict. What is the role of communication in preventing or transforming such behavior? The present article addresses this question based on lessons learned in 3 Dialogue Workshops carried out between 2002 and 2004 in the Eastern Nile Basin, with participants from Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan. It indicates that the danger of upstream–downstream relations is not primarily “scorpion-like” behavior (damaging an opponent), but rather “ostrich-like” behavior (burying one's head in the sand, ignoring unilateral developments). Dialogue is shown to be a key determinant in rectifying this situation, as it is the basis for trust-building, exchange of information, and development of mutually acceptable management options. Other key factors to be considered are the balance of power between highland–lowland actors and the legal/institutional framework governing their interaction.

Mountain Research and Development 2005, 25(2), pp. 115-120

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Dialogue Workshop Methodology

Adapting the Interactive Problem-Solving Method to an Environmental Conflict: Evaluation of an Eastern Nile Basin Dialogue Workshop

Simon Mason, 2007

NCCR North-South Dialogue Series

Bern, NCCR North-South

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Riparian perspectives of international cooperation in the Eastern Nile Basin

Preface

Simon Mason, 2005

Aquatic Sciences 2005, Vol. 67, No. 1, pp. 1-2

Available from: SpringerLink

Transforming Environmental and Natural Resource Use Conflicts

Simon Mason, A. Müller, 2007

In: Steininger K, Cogoy M, editors. The Economics Of Global Environmental Change: International Cooperation for Sustainability. Edward Elgar.

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Can Andean medicine coexist with biomedical healthcare? A comparison of two rural communities in Peru and Bolivia

Sarah-Lan Mathez-Stiefel, Stephan Rist, Ina Vandebroek, 2012

This paper presents a study of patterns in the distribution and transmission of medicinal plant knowledge in rural Andean communities in Peru and Bolivia. Interviews and freelisting exercises were conducted with 18 households at each study site. The amount of medicinal plant knowledge of households was compared in relation to their socioeconomic characteristics. Cluster analysis was applied to identify households that possessed similar knowledge. The different modes of knowledge transmission were also assessed. Our study shows that while the amount of plant knowledge is determined by individual motivation and experience, the type of knowledge is influenced by the community of residence, age, migratory activity, and market integration.
Plant knowledge was equally transmitted vertically and horizontally, which indicates that it is first acquired within the family but then undergoes transformations as a result of subsequent contacts with other knowledge sources, including age peers.

Mathez-Stiefel SL, Vandebroek I, Rist S. 2012. Can Andean medicine coexist with biomedical healthcare? A comparison of two rural communities in Peru and Bolivia. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 8:26. doi:10.1186/1746-4269-8-26
This article is open access at http://www.ethnobiomed.com/content/8/1/26

Distribution and Transmission of Medicinal Plant Knowledge in the Andean Highlands

Sarah-Lan Mathez-Stiefel, 2012

This paper presents a study of patterns in the distribution and transmission of medicinal plant knowledge in rural Andean communities in Peru and Bolivia. Interviews and freelisting exercises were conducted with 18 households at each study site. The amount of medicinal plant knowledge of households was compared in relation to their socioeconomic characteristics. Cluster analysis was applied to identify households that possessed similar knowledge. The different modes of knowledge transmission were also assessed. Our study shows that while the amount of plant knowledge is determined by individual motivation and experience, the type of knowledge is influenced by the community of residence, age, migratory activity, and market integration.
Plant knowledge was equally transmitted vertically and horizontally, which indicates that it is first acquired within the family but then undergoes transformations as a result of subsequent contacts with other knowledge sources, including age peers.

Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine doi:10.1155/2012/959285

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Environmental stress and demographic change in Nepal

Underlying conditions contributing to a decade of insurgency

Richard Matthew, Bishnu Raj Upreti, 2005

"In a report of the Environmental Change and Security Program, Richard Matthew and Bishnu Raj Upreti review the broad dynamics of Nepal’s current civil conflict and argue that environmental stress and population factors have played significant roles in creating the underlying conditions for acute insecurity and instability.
Through a brief case study of the Koshi Tappu Wetland area, the authors show that this situation is evident not just in the Maoist strongholds of western Nepal, but even in remote areas of the east, thus encircling the capital region."

Environmental Change and Security Program Report 2005, No. 11, pp. 29-39

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Le réseau social des maraîchers à Abidjan agit sur la perception des préoccupations et des risques sanitaires liés à l’eau

Barbara Matthys, Francis A. Adiko, Guéladio Cissé, Marcel Tanner, Andres Tschannen, Jürg Utzinger, Kaspar Wyss, 2006

"L'objectif de la présente étude conduite dans des zones de production maraîchère d'Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, était d'analyser les problèmes principaux des cultivateurs; leur perceptions des maladies et des risques sanitaires et la corrélation entre les risques sanitaires et le statut socio-économique des ménages ainsi que la cohésion sociale dans les communautés maraîchères. Les problèmes principaux sont l'insécurité foncière et de difficultés de commercialisation. Les préoccupations sanitaires sont la fatigue et l'insalubrité. En l'absence d'une éducation sanitaire fondée et des interventions localement adaptées, les cultivateurs n'accordent pas une attention particulière à la prévention des risques sanitaires. Le support technique, en concordance avec l'éducation et la communication de la prévention des risques sanitaires, promettent une augmentation de la productivité et une amélioration des moyens de subsistance des ménages cultivateurs à Abidjan."

VertigO - la revue électronique en sciences de l'environnement 2006, hors série 3, Article 8

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Urban farming and malaria risk factors in a medium-sized town of Côte d’Ivoire

Barbara Matthys, Guéladio Cissé, Emmanuel Gbede Becket, Laura Gosoniu, Eliézer K. N'Goran, Giovanna Raso, Marcel Tanner, Andres Tschannen, Jürg Utzinger, Penelope Vounatsou, 2006

"Urbanization occurs at a rapid pace across Africa and Asia and affects people’s health and well-being. A typical feature in urban settings of Africa is the maintenance of traditional livelihoods, including agriculture. The purpose of this study was to investigate malaria risk factors in urban farming communities in a medium-sized town in Côte d’Ivoire. Two cross-sectional surveys were carried out among 112 households from six agricultural zones. [...] Our findings indicate that specific crop systems and specific agricultural practices may increase the risk of malaria in urban settings of tropical Africa."

American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2006, 75(6), pp. 1223-1231

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Conservation for whose benefit? Challenges and opportunities for management of Mkomazi Game Reserve, Tanzania.

Gimbage Ernest Mbeyale, N. A. Songorwa, 2008

The Mkomazi Game Reserve (MGR) in north-eastern Tanzania is a protected area where different social groups are involved in contest for natural resources. Using MGR as a case study, we examine and discuss how the fortress approach to conservation has led to management problems. We present an overview of conflicts between the MGR authorities and communities, analyse strategies used to deal with the situation and discuss the different ideologies involved.
On one hand this is a successful story of fortress conservation. There is proof of increasing bird numbers and improvement in vegetation cover. However, this is at the expense of livelihood security of the local population. We recommend alternative conservation pathways that adopt new participatory conservation approaches instead of the fortress approach currently implemented in MGR.

In: Galvin M, Haller T, editors. People, Protected Areas and Global Change: Participatory Conservation in Latin America, Africa, Asia and Europe. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, University of Bern, Vol. 3. Bern: Geographica Bernensia, pp. 221-251.

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Ujamaa Policy and Open Access in Pangani River Basin and Rufiji Floodplain, Tanzania

Gimbage Ernest Mbeyale, Patrick Meroka, 2005

The Common Property Resource Digest 2005, No. 74, pp. 5-7

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Identifying the Institutional Decision Process to Introduce Decentralized Sanitation in the City of Kunming (China)

Edi Medilanski, Liang Chuan, Tove Larsen, Hans-Joachim Mosler, Roland Schertenleib, 2007

"We conducted a study of the institutional barriers to introducing urine source separation in the urban area of Kunming, China. On the basis of a stakeholder analysis, we constructed stakeholder diagrams showing the relative importance of decision-making power and (positive) interest in the topic. A hypothetical decision-making process for the urban case was derived based on a successful pilot project in a periurban area. All our results were evaluated by the stakeholders. We concluded that although a number of primary stakeholders have a large interest in testing urine source separation also in an urban context, most of the key stakeholders would be reluctant to this idea. However, the success in the periurban area showed that even a single, well-received pilot project can trigger the process of broad dissemination of new technologies. Whereas the institutional setting for such a pilot project is favorable in Kunming, a major challenge will be to adapt the technology to the demands of an urban population. Methodologically, we developed an approach to corroborate a stakeholder analysis with the perception of the stakeholders themselves. This is important not only in order to validate the analysis but also to bridge the theoretical gap between stakeholder analysis and stakeholder involvement. We also show that in disagreement with the assumption of most policy theories, local stakeholders consider informal decision pathways to be of great importance in actual policy-making."

Environmental Management 2007, Vol. 39, No. 5, pp. 648-662

Available from: SpringerLink

Wastewater Management in Kunming, China

A Stakeholder Perspectives on Measures at the Source

Edi Medilanski, Liang Chuan, Tove Larsen, Hans-Joachim Mosler, Roland Schertenleib, 2006

"Large sewer systems with central wastewater treatment plants were long considered a successful model that could be exported to practically any city of the world. This centralized, highly water-consuming system has, however,
shown its limits in some developing and transition countries, especially in fastgrowing cities with limited water resources. This study from around Lake Dianchi in Yunnan, China, investigated the feasibility of introducing measures at the source for the different urban wastewater contributions in the city of Kunming, and the stakeholder perspectives on this approach. In addition, the stakeholders evaluated the potential of two different sanitation alternatives that allowed the separation and re-use of human excreta as fertilizer."

Environment and Urbanization 2006, Vol 18, No. 2, pp. 353–368

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Dynamics of Irrigation Institutions

A Case Study of a Village Panchayat in Kerala

Vineetha Menon, K.N. Nair, Antonyto Paul, 2005

Economic and Political Weekly 2005, Vol. 26, February, pp. 893-904

Available from: Economic and Political Weekly

Bridging Research and Development

Partnership Actions for Mitigating Syndromes (PAMS) in the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South: Capitalising on Experience

Peter Messerli, Thomas Breu, Karl Herweg, Franziska Pfister, Annika Salmi, 2007

NCCR North-South Dialogue Series

Bern, NCCR North-South

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The Mountain and Highland Focus of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North–South

Peter Messerli, Hans Hurni, Urs Wiesmann, 2005

Mountain Research and Development 2005, Volume 25, Issue 2, pp. 174–179

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The Tajik Pamirs: A rich historical and cultural heritage

Robert Middleton, 2003

The Tajik Pamirs: Challenges of Sustainable Development in an Isolated Mountain Region: The present publication provides a summary of the outcomes of the Pamir Strategy Project (PSP). It portrays life in the Pamirs, along with development challenges and options, and presents practical and participatory approaches that can lead to sustainable mountain development. In addition, this publication outlines the lessons learnt within the PSP by presenting and evaluationg methods and apporaches such as participatory village studies, multi-level stakeholder workshops for strategy development, knowledge generation processes, and Geographic Information Systmes as decision support tools for sustainable mountain development.

In: Breu T, and Hurni H, editors. The Tajik Pamirs. Challenges of Sustainable Development in an Isolated Mountain Region. Bern: Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), University of Bern, pp 12-15

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Vulnérabilité et résilience des métropoles

«elles sont si fragiles»

Isabelle Milbert, 2003

In: Da Cunha A, Ruegg J. 2003. Développement durable et aménagement du territoire, Presses Polytechniques et Universitaires Romandes, pp. 313-330.

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La démographie canine et son importance pour la transmission de la rage humaine à N'Djaména

R. Mindekem, U. Kayali, Guelmbaye Ndoutamia, N Yemadji, Jakob Zinsstag, 2005

Revue de Médecine Tropicale 65(1):53-58.

People need education to conserve forests

E. Mohammed , 2010

In: The Post 07.07.2010

This newspaper article deals with the workshop of PAMS "Research based policy advocacy & dialogues for sustainable forest governance" organised by Sustainable Development Policy Institute (SDPI) in collaboration with the NCCR North-South, held in Islamabad on 6th July 2010.

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The Local Impact of Under-Realisation of the Lumbini Master Plan

A Field Report

Kate Molesworth, Ulrike Müller-Böker, 2005

Contributions to Nepalese Studies 2005, Volume 32, Issue 2

Available for purchase from: Center for Nepal and Asian Study Center

Assessing nutrient flows in septic tanks by eliciting expert judgement

A promising method in the context of developing countries

Agnes Montangero, Hasan Belevi, 2007

"Simple models based on the physical and biochemical processes occurring in septic tanks, pit and urine diversion latrines were developed to determine the nutrient flows in these systems. Nitrogen and phosphorus separation in different output materials from these on-site sanitation installations were thus determined. Moreover, nutrient separation in septic tanks was also assessed through literature values and by eliciting expert judgement. Use of formal expert elicitation technique proved to be effective, particularly in the context of developing countries where data is often scarce but expert judgement readily available. In Vietnam, only 5–14% and 11–27% of the nitrogen and phosphorus input, respectively, are removed from septic tanks with the faecal sludge. The remaining fraction leaves the tank via the liquid effluent. Unlike septic tanks, urine diversion latrines allow to immobilise most of the nutrients either in form of stored urine or dehydrated faecal matter. These latrines thus contribute to reducing the nutrient load in the environment and lowering consumption of energy and non-renewable resources for fertiliser production."

Water Research 2007, Volume 41, Number 5, pp. 1052-1064

Available from: ScienceDirect

Material flow analysis as a tool for environmental sanitation planning.

Agnes Montangero, Hasan Belevi, TKN Thai , 2005

This paper illustrates how the method of Material Flow Analysis (MFA) can be applied to assess measures aiming at optimizing nitrogen recovery through improved excreta management in Viet Tri, Vietnam. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how the application of MFA could be rendered more affordable for planners and decision-makers in developing countries confronted with poor data availability and quality.

SANDEC News 6

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Migration, poverty, security and social networks: A Central American perspective.

Morales, A Morales, A, Daniel Villafuerte Solis, 2010

This article provides a critical introduction to understanding the migration–poverty relationship from a different perspective, i.e. by focusing on the migration–livelihoods nexus from the point of view of social structures and people’s living conditions. The discussion presented here is based on analysis of different analytical approaches to migration in Central America and the Caribbean, developed within the framework of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR), an international research programme focusing on mitigating syndromes of global change. The present appraisal provides a broader explanation of the scope of relationships in the development of social life reproduction strategies, envisaging migration as
an answer to problems of inequality and as a resource for poverty alleviation strategies, from a Central American perspective.

In: Hurni H, Wiesmann U, editors. Global Change and Sustainable Development: A Synthesis of Regional Experiences from Research Partnerships. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, University of Bern, Vol. 5. Bern, Switzerland: Geographica Bernensia, pp 417-433.

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Formulating Waste Management Strategies Based on Waste Management Practices of Households in Santiago de Cuba, Cuba

Hans-Joachim Mosler, Tamara Cabellero Rodriguez, Silke Drescher, Miranda Guzman, Christian Zurbruegg, 2006

Rapid urbanisation, population growth and changes in lifestyles in low- and middle-income countries contribute to increasing the per capita domestic waste generation. This trend leads to deplorable environmental and public health conditions, especially in rapidly expanding cities of low- and middle-income countries lacking appropriate waste management systems, Santiago de Cuba is no exception. To improve solid waste management in the city of Santiago de Cuba, the generation of household waste was studied and individual waste treatment approaches were assessed.
The paper contains the results of the composition and distribution of the waste generated by the households as a function of socio-demographic data. Furthermore, the paper describes the various household treatment strategies dependent on specific waste material types.

Habitat International 2006, Volume 30, Issue 4, pp. 849-862

Available online from: Science Direct

African 1; An Epidemiologically Important Clonal Complex of Mycobacterium bovis Dominant in Mali, Nigeria, Cameroon and Chad

Borna Müller, Stefan Berg, Bassirou Bonfoh, Markus Hilty, Jakob Zinsstag, 2009

J. Bacteriol. 191(6):1951-1960.

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Die Erweiterung des Schweizerischen Nationalparks

Der Planungsprozess 1995-2000, betrachtet aus partizipationstheoretischer Sicht

Urs Müller, Michael Kollmair, 2004

"It seems to be increasingly recognised worldwide that the aims of nature conservation or of regional planning can only be achieved with adequate involvement of the concerned communities themselves. This article analyses the social processes during the proposed extension of the Swiss National Park between 1996 and 2000 from a participatory viewpoint. It is based on an analysis of relevant newspaper articles and in-depth interviews with representatives of involved stakeholders. Considering that participation is a very popular, yet contested term, we distinguish between normative (i.e., the aim is participation) and instrumental (i.e., the aim is to achieve predefined goals) participation, notions that supplement rather than exclude each other. While the local population rejected the majority of the proposed extensions of the Park, results show that this should not be perceived as a failure of the process. That the outcome was not perceived by local people to be satisfactory could be explained by the lack of awareness of the basic principles of participatory processes, like openness and transparency of planning, a sufficient timeframe, and independent mediation. These organisational shortcomings resulted in fundamental opposition from groups of local stakeholders and constrained the future development potential of the region."

DISP 2004, Vol. 159, No. 4,pp. 44-51

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Molecular characterisation of Mycobacterium bovis isolated from cattle slaughtered at the Bamako abattoir in Mali

B Müller, Bassirou Bonfoh, A. Fané, NH Smith, B Steiner, Jakob Zinsstag, 2008

Two groups of M. bovis were detected in cattle slaughtered at the Bamako abattoir. The spoligotype pattern of the first group has similarities to strains previously observed in Chad, Cameroon and Nigeria. The additional absence of spacer 6 in the majority of these strains suggests a Mali specific clone. The spoligotype patterns of the remaining strains suggest that they may have been of European origin.

BMC Veterinary Research 4:26.

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Regionalisierungen: Fallbeispiel Biosphäre Entlebuch

Urs Müller, 2006

In autumn 2000 the population of the Entlebuch decidedly voted for its candidature as a UNESCO biosphere reserve. In the following year this label was granted and thus the Entlebuch became a model region for sustainable development. This article analyses the factors that made the self-determined regionalisation as a biosphere reserve possible and focuses on the role of visual images. The case study shows clearly that ‹the power of images› is strongly dependent on the context in which the images are embedded. In the Entlebuch images were avoided that have a potential for conflict (i.e. those referring to past conflicting issues). Rather images were published, which had an integrative effect on the broader public. This view from within, which emphasises economic activities and aspects of the living space is in stark contrast to the clichéd outside view as a harmonic and nature space that was published in supra-regional media.

In: Backhaus N & Müller-Böker U, Editors. 2006. Gesellschaft und Raum: Konzepte, Kategorien. Human Geography Series Vol. 22, Zurich: Department of Geography, University of Zurich, pp 53-71.

Where Are the Poor and Where Are the Trees?

Targeting of poverty reduction and forest conservation in Vietnam

Daniel Müller, Michael Epprecht, William D. Sunderlin, 2006

"This paper highlights the spatial linkages of forest quality with poverty incidence and poverty density in Vietnam. Most of the Vietnamese poor live in densely populated river deltas and cities while remote upland areas have the highest poverty incidences, gaps, and severities. Forests of high local and global value are located in areas where relatively few poor people live, but where the incidence, gap, and severity of poverty are strongest, and where the livelihood strategies are based on agricultural and forest activities. Analysis was conducted combining country-wide spatial data on commune-level poverty estimates and the geographic distribution of forest quality. The results suggest the usefulness of targeting investments in remote areas that combine poverty reduction and environmental sustainability."

Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) 2006, Working Paper No. 34

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Arbeiten beim grossen Nachbarn

Arbeitsmigration von Far West Nepal nach Delhi

Ulrike Müller-Böker, Susan Thieme, 2007

Stellt die internationale Arbeitsmigration eine Chance für Nepal dar? Trägt sie zur Reduzierung von Armut bei? Können insbesondere arme Haushalte durch die Arbeitsmigration nach Indien ihren Lebensunterhalt sichern? Immer häufiger betonen internationale Entwicklungsorganisationen die wachsende Bedeutung und das grosse Potenzial der Migration. Gleichzeitig hat sich die Migrationsforschung facettenreich weiterentwickelt und befasst sich u.a. auch mit der Frage, wie Migrationshaushalte eine plurilokale Lebensunterhaltsstrategie meistern. Der Artikel zeigt Beispiele von Organisationsformen, mit denen Migrierende aus Far West Nepal die Möglichkeit schaffen, in der Megastadt Delhi ihre Existenz zu sichern.

Nepal Information 99(2):70-73

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Livelihood strategies in a marginal area of Nepal (Far West Nepal) with an emphasis on labour migration to India.

Ulrike Müller-Böker, Susan Thieme, 2007

Labour migration to India is a very important livelihood strategy for people living in marginal areas of Nepal. How is this strategy embedded in the local context? Which institutions shape the migrants' everyday life in India? What are the opportunities to improve the crucial institutions for money transfer and money saving? These questions are on the research agenda of an ongoing project at the University of Zurich, Switzerland.

In: Jones G, Leimgruber W, Nel E, editors. Issues in Geographical Marginality: Papers presented during the Meetings of the Commission on Evolving Issues of Geographical Marginality in the Early 21st Century World, 2001-2004. Grahamstown: Rhodes University.

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Governing violence in the pastoralist space:

Karrayu and state notions of cattle raiding in the Ethiopian Awash Valley

Allemmaya Mulugeta, Tobias Hagmann, 2008

Africa Focus 21(2):71-87.

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Resource based conflict framing among the Kereyu in the Upper and Middle Awash Valley of Ethiopia

Allemmaya Mulugeta, 2005

This article presents aspects of a research project on so-called «violent resource based conflicts» in pastoral areas. It focuses on the question of how various actors of the main involved parties interpret and «frame» conflicts differently. It is a case study conducted among the Kereyu pastoral community in the upper and middle Awash valley of Ethiopia who relate with other neighbouring groups and share common resources through both violent and non-violent conflicts.

Tsantsa 2005, 10: pp. 23-26

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Lessons From Two Long-term Hydrological Studies in Kenya and Sri Lanka

D. N. Mungai, W. Elkaduwa, Boniface Kiteme, C. K. Ong, R. Sakthivadivel, 2004

The rate and characteristics of land use change in tropical watersheds due to changing demographic, economic and policy factors have important consequences for catchment health and environmental services. Few tropical watershed studies have lasted long enough to facilitate a credible analysis of the long-term effects of land use change on the environmental services provided by watersheds. This paper examines the driving forces and patterns of historical land use change in two long-term watershed studies in Kenya and Sri Lanka and their hydrological impacts.

Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 2004, 104, pp. 135–143

Available online from: Science Direct

Agrarian Distress and Livelihood Strategies

A Study in Pulpalli Panchayat, Wayand District, Kerala

K.N. Nair, Vineetha Menon, C. P. Vinod, 2007

"This paper examines the household livelihood strategies under agrarian distress in Pulpalli Panchayat of Kerala. It also looks at the relationship between household assets and livelihood strategies. The negotiations of institutions by the marginalized and depressed sections of the society were analysed in detail."

CDS Working Paper no. 396. Trivandrum, Kerala, India: Centre for Development Studies.

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Agrarian Distress and Rural Livelihoods

A Study in Upputhura Panchayat, Idukki District, Kerala

K.N. Nair, R. Ramakumar, 2007

"This study examines the impact of agrarian distress on the different socio-economic groups, the strategies of livelihood adopted by households and the local institution in shaping these strategies. The study is based on the data collected from in-depth socio-economic enquiries conducted in Upputhara Panchayat in Idukki District. An important conclusion of the study is that the strategies of livelihood framed in response to a shock could vary across households depending on the extent of their asset ownership."

CDS Working Paper no. 392. Trivandrum, Kerala, India: Centre for Development Studies.

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Distress Debt and Suicides among Agrarian Households

Findings from three Village Studies in Kerala

K.N. Nair, Vineetha Menon, 2007

"This paper examines the factors and process underlying agrarian distress in Kerala by undertaking the case studies of three villages situated in Wayanad and Idukki districts namely, Cherumad, Kappikkunnu and Upputhara. The impact of distress on household livelihoods and indebtedness and how they cope up with the situation are examined with entire village and intra village analysis of data. The process of agrarian distress which resulted in suicides were analysed through a few in-depth studies."

CDS Working Paper no. 397. Trivandrum, Kerala, India: Centre for Development Studies

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Lease farming in Kerala: Findings from micro level studies

K.N. Nair, Vineetha Menon, 2005

"[...] This paper examines some micro-level studies on tenancy in Kerala, more specifically, its prevalence across locations and crops, characteristics of lessors and lessees, the terms of lease, and the income derived from lease cultivation and in the light of the analysis, argues for institutionalised arrangements for the expansion of lease cultivation, rather than sterner measures to check it. [...]"

CDS Working Paper no. 378. Trivandrum, Kerala, India: Centre for Development Studies.

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Livelihood Risks and Coping Strategies

A Case Study in the Agrarian Village of Cherumad, Kerala

K.N. Nair, Vineetha Menon, Antonyto Paul, 2007

"This paper examines the various dimensions of livelihood risk as informed by a in-depth case study of an agrarian village namely, Cherumad in Kerala. The livelihood risk in Cherumad since the last quarter of the 1990’s has been unique and unprecedented in their nature and intensity. The effect of price risk and productivity risk of crops became an income risk to the farming community. For agricultural labour too it was an income risk with double effects of wage risk and employment risk. These risk have resulted in a general fall in the living standards of people."

CDS Working Paper no. 394. Trivandrum, Kerala, India: Centre for Development Studies.

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The declining rice-fish farming

A case study from North Kerala

K.N. Nair, Ramachandran Mahesh, Vineetha Menon, 2004

"In the coastal regionns of India, a complex and ecologically responsive farming system has evolved over centuries. In this system, rice an fish cultivation alternates trough a mechanism of water control. This paper discusses the evolution of the socio-political and institutional arrangements in such and integrated farming system (Know as kaipad cultivation) in Ezhome Panchayat in Kerala that emerged out of collective action, and documents how they could not be sustained. The decline of kaipad cultivation has been adversely affecting the livehoods of a segment of agricultural labour households, especially the women and the elderly. They are several constraints to the revival of this cultivation. Nevertheless, reviving this is vital for ecorestoration and to ensure justice to the disadvantaged people."

Sociological Bulletin 2004 , Vol. 53, No. 2, pp. 178-206

Available from: Article@INIST

Risk perception, risk management and vulnerability to landslides in the hill-slopes in the city of La Paz, Bolivia

Nathan, Fabien Nathan, Fabien, 2008

The article begins by describing the difficult living conditions of many people in the hill slopes
(laderas) of La Paz, Bolivia, demonstrating that they are exposed to a combination of natural
and social hazards.1 It shows that residents, community leaders and city planners tend to underestimate
or deny risk, with important consequences for risk management, such as a failure to raise
risk awareness. The article then proposes some hypotheses to explain risk perceptions in La Paz, discarding the usual single-approach interpretations and suggesting instead more nuanced theoretical explanations to account for why people build their homes in such hazardous environments.

In: Disasters, 32/3, Autumn 2008.

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Local Urban Observatory for Nakuru Municipality, Kenya

NCCR North-South, 2004

The Nakuru Local Urban Observatory Project aims at providing a framework for sustainable urban planning and management practices through building technical skills and improving participation of the various local stakeholders. To achieve this goal, a Local Urban Observatory (LUO) was created to stimulate the development of municipal spatial and environmental planning and management practices, informed by accurate, timely and accessible information.

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Accords et conflits d?intérêts dans la gestion de la gare routière Pétersen de Dakar

El Hadji Mamadou Ndiaye, Jerome Chenal, Yves Pedrazzini, Cheikh Samba Wade, 2009

In: Chenal J, Pedrazzini Y, Cissé G, Kaufmann V, éditeurs. Quelques rues d?Afrique. Observation et gestion de l?espace public à Abidjan, Dakar et Nouakchott. Lausanne : Les éditions du Lasur, pp 81-92.

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Managing water resources in dynamic settings: A multi-level, multi-stakeholder perspective.

James Ngana, A Chitiki, Gimbage Ernest Mbeyale, Peter Messerli, T Msuya, Benedikt Notter, Urs Wiesmann, 2010

The aim of the present article is to contribute to the debate on the role of research in sustainable management of water and related resources, based on experiences in the Upper Ewaso Ng’iro and Pangani river basins in East Africa. Both basins are characterised by humid, resource-rich highlands and extensive semi-arid lowlands, by growing demand for water and related resources, and by numerous conflicting stakeholder interests. Issues of scale and level, on the one hand, and the normative dimension of sustainability, on the other hand, are identified as key challenges for research that seeks to produce relevant and applicable results for informed decision-making. A multi-level and multi-stakeholder perspective, defined on the basis of three minimal principles, is proposed here as an approach to research for informed decision-making. Key lessons learnt from applying these principles in the two river basins are presented and iscussed in the light of current debate.

In: Hurni H, Wiesmann U, editors; with an international group of co-editors. Global Change and Sustainable Development: A Synthesis of Regional Experiences from Research Partnerships. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, University of Bern, Vol. 5. Bern, Switzerland: Geographica Bernensia, pp 91-106.

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Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Northern Vietnam: Hanoi and Thai Nguyen case studies using the moss biomonitoring technique, INAA and AAS

Hung Nguyen-Viet, Nadine Bernard, Marina Vladimirovna Frontasyeva, Daniel Gilbert, Thu My Trinh Thi, 2009

The paper studied the metal atmospheric deposition in Hanoi and Thai Nguyen (Vietnam) using the technique of moss monitoring and combining 2 analytical analyses Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA).

Available from: Environmental Science and Pollution Research. DOI 10.1007/s11356-009-0258-6

Improving environmental sanitation, health and well-being - a conceptual framework for integral interventions.

Hung Nguyen-Viet, Bassirou Bonfoh, Guéladio Cissé, Doulaye Kone, Thammarat Koottatep, Agnes Montangero, Antoine Morel, Brigit Obrist, Roland Schertenleib, Narong Surinkul, Marcel Tanner, Jakob Zinsstag, Christian Zurbruegg, 2009

We introduce a conceptual framework for improving health and environmental sanitation in urban and peri-urban areas using an approach combining health, ecological, socio-economic and cultural assessments.

Available from: EcoHealth. DOI 10.1007/s10393-009-0249-6

Ciudades Americanas. Territorios, proyectos, imágenes y representaciónes

Alicia Novick, H Caride, 2008

In Spanish

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Pensar y construir la ciudad moderna. Planes y proyectos para Buenos Aires

Alicia Novick, 2008

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Engaging anthropology in urban health research

Issues and prospects

Brigit Obrist, Trudy Harpham, Marcel Tanner, 2003

"Urbanisation remains a challenge in the new millennium and will continue to have important implications for human health. This leads to lively debates in the field of international health, but with minimal engagement of anthropology. To stimulate active involvement, our paper highlights main issues addressed in this special issue and maps directions for future research. Our collection of papers addresses hot topics in urban health research, ranging from everyday health practice to mental health, chronic and degenerative illness, old age and social safety networks, and examines them from a complementary, anthropological perspective. Most priority concerns refer to four core issues commonly considered as characteris tics of urban life, namely, levels of environmental hazards, commodification, social fragmen tation and health service provision. We thus advocate for fresh perspectives, moving from a medical anthropology to a health anthropology, and from risk approaches to frameworks centring on affliction, vulnerability and resilience. Future research should concentrate on comparisons and longitudinal design to sharpen key distinctions, e.g. between rural, peri-urban and urban, use dynamics, diversity and complexity as analytical frameworks and investigate emerging issues like trust and care. With an active engagement in and commitment to urban health research, anthropology can enhance conceptual clarity and contribute to locally relevant public health actions."

Anthropology & Medicine 2003, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 361-371

Available from: informaworld

Health anthropology and urban health research

Brigit Obrist, Peter Van Eeuwijk, Mitchell G. Weiss, 2003

"We live in a rapidly urbanising world. According to the 2001 statistics of the United Nations, the proportion of urban dwellers rose from 30% in 1950 to 47% in 2000 and will probably attain 60% in 2030. Almost 70% of these urban dwellers live in cities of developing regions. At the current rates of urbanisation, the number of city dwellers in the world will equal that of their rural counterparts by 2007. In the late 1980s, researchers became increasingly concerned about the combined impact of rapid urban growth and economic recession on the health of a majority of people in African and Asian cities. Several books established urban health research with a focus on developing countries as a multidisciplinary field of inquiry (Harpham et al., 1988; Salem & Jeannée, 1989). It is now widely recognised that urbanisation per se is not necessarily bad for health, but it becomes so if urban governments fail to establish and support necessary infrastructure and services to protect citizens from environmental hazards and from social, economic and political insecurity."

Anthropology & Medicine 2003, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 267-274

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Kranksein, Heilen und Gesundbleiben im Schnittpunkt von Religion und Medizin

Brigit Obrist, W Bruchhausen, H Dilger, 2005

CURARE

Medicalization and morality in a weak state

Health, hygiene and water in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

Brigit Obrist, 2004

"Inspired by Foucault, many studies have examined the medicalization of everyday life in Western societies. This paper reconsiders potentials and limitations of this concept in an African city. Grounded in ethnographic research in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, it concentrates on cleanliness, health and water in a lower middle-class neighbourhood. The findings show that women are familiar with professional health development discourses emphasizing cleanliness as a high value linked to bodily and domestic health. These discourses have been diffused in schools, clinics and other institutions during the colonial and socialist period. Women not only refer to these discourses, they try to reproduce them in daily practice and even demand them. This coercive yet voluntary nature of institutionalized discourses points to 'paradoxes of medicalization' also found in Western societies. It acquires, however, different meanings in a weak state like contemporary Tanzania which hardly manages to institutionalize medicalization through professional practice. Under such conditions, women who choose to follow health development discourses suffer a heavier practical, intellectual and emotional burden than those who are less committed. This may at least partly explain why many women assume a pragmatic stance towards the medicalization of everyday life."

Anthropology & Medicine 2004, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 43-57

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Ohne Sauberkeit keine Gesundheit. Hygiene im Alltag von Dar es Salaam, Tansania

Brigit Obrist, 2002

«Gesundheit» ist ein Zauberwort der Moderne. Es ist ein positives Konzept, das wir mit vielen Bereichen des alltäglichen Lebens in Beziehung setzen, von Umwelt über Ernährung bis hin zu Arbeit , Freizeit und sozialen Beziehungen. Was bedeutet «Gesundheit» jedoch für Menschen, die in einer ganz anderen Umgebung leben, nämlich einer schnell wachsenden afrikanischen Stadt?

Tsantsa 2002, 7: 66-76

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Urban health in daily practice

Livelihood, vulnerability and resilience in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Brigit Obrist, 2003

"Health is the core value and ultimate goal of health development, yet we know very little about health conceptions in everyday life. Inspired by investigations into lay health concepts in Europe, our study explores experiences and meanings of health in a strikingly different context, namely, in a low-income neighbourhood of an African city. Grounded in ethnographic research in Dar es Salaam, we introduce the concept of 'health practice' and examine health definitions, explanations, and activities of urban Swahili women. Our findings show that representations of health form a set of experiences, meanings and embodied practice centring on the links between body, mind, and living conditions. We suggest that 'livelihood', 'vulnerability' and 'resilience' best capture women's main concerns of health practice in such a setting. All women face an emotional burden of being exposed to urban afflictions and an intellectual and practical burden of overcoming them, but some meet this challenge more successfully than others do. This approach tips the balance towards a positive view of health that has been neglected in medical anthropology. It also opens new lines of inquiry in urban health research by consequently following a resource orientation that acknowledges women's struggle to stay healthy and directs attention to their agency."

Anthropology & Medicine 2003, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 275-290

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Migration and Fertility Relationship

A Case Study of Kenya

Charles Ochola Omondi, Elias Ayiemba, 2003

"Migration patterns in Kenya in general differentially affect fertility levels, patterns and behaviour. For economically dynamic areas, out-migration and the associated spousal separation and differential sex ratios seem to be associated with falling fertility, though migration is not the only or even the principal factor involved. In lagging and/or peripheral areas, by contrast, the demographic effect of migration seems to promote high fertility by undermining some critical factors of fertility determinants and behaviour. Examples from Africa in general and Kenya in particular are invoked to examine and explain this important association between migration and fertility. Furthermore, the paper incorporates the geography of economic and social development to help understand the relationship between migration and fertility."

African Population Studies 2003, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 97-113

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Estimating Emissions in Latin America: An Alternative to Traffic Models

Margarita Ossés de Eicker, Hans Hurni, Rainer Zah, 2008

Emissions from traffic are a serious pollution problem in Latin American cities. Traffic models at street level allow precise estimations of these emissions but are too expensive for a broad application. A simplifed approach for estimating traffic emissions at city level proved to be a reasonable alternative for Latin American mid-sized cities.

Poster presented at the International Conference on Research for Development (ICRD), National Centre of Competence in Research NCCR North-South, University of Bern. 02-04 July 2008, Bern.

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Urban malaria in the Sahel: prevalence and seasonality of presumptive malaria and parasitaemia at primary care level in Chad

Nadjitolnan Othnigué, Blaise Genton, Marcel Tanner, Kaspar Wyss, 2006

The objective of this study was to assess malaria prevalence rates and seasonal patterns among clinically diagnosed malaria cases at the level of primary care facilities in an urban Sahelian setting.
Clinical diagnosis of malaria has a very low positive predicted value in this low endemicity urban setting, and its low specificity leads to inappropriate care for a large proportion of patients. This has a major impact on economic costs for health services and households. In the Sahel, systematic use of microscopy-based diagnosis and/or rapid diagnostic tests should be considered to appropriately manage malaria and non-malaria cases.

Tropical Medicine & International Health 2006, Vol. 11, Issue 2, page 204

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Le désert existe aussi dans la ville

Regard sur la lutte contre la maladie chez des populations défavorisées en milieu périurbain de Nouakchott (Mauritanie)

Moustapha Ould Taleb, Guéladio Cissé, Séraphin Essane, Baïdy Lô, Brigit Obrist, Esther Schelling, Kaspar Wyss, Jakob Zinsstag, 2006

"Ce travail porte sur la perception des déterminants de la vulnérabilité à la maladie et la gestion des problèmes de santé qui surviennent dans les ménages au niveau des populations d'origine nomade en milieu urbain défavorisé à Nouakchott. La méthodologie utilisée est qualitative basée sur des entretiens approfondis et l'observation participante. La perception de la santé est largement rapportée à la mauvaise qualité de l'habitat et au manque de moyens financiers pour l'accès aux services de santé. Les maladies les plus citées sont le paludisme, les problèmes gastriques et les maladies pédiatriques. Les épisodes de maladie sont gérés grâce à l'appui du réseau familial ou tribal qui se manifeste à travers la ''loha'', la solidarité du groupe de parenté. Il y a un besoin de stratégies de développement adaptées pour assurer l'intégration de ces populations spécifiques dans le tissu urbain à travers (1) l'implantation de services sociaux d'éducation et de santé, (2) le financement de microprojets pour combattre le chômage et (3) l'appui en formation pour les coopératives."

VertigO - la revue électronique en sciences de l'environnement 2006, hors série 3, Article 4

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People and “Territories”

Urban Sociology Meets the Livelihood Approach in the South

Luca Pattaroni, Jean-Claude Bolay, Vincent Kaufmann, Yves Pedrazzini, Adriana Rabinovich, 2008

NCCR North-South Dialogue, No. 20

Bern, NCCR North-South

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Environmental Peacebuilding: Managing Natural Resource Conflicts in a Changing World

swisspeace Annual Conference 2007

Didier Péclard, 2009

With the current attention given to climate change and global warming, the issue of “environmental security” is back high on the agenda of the international community. Environmental degradation is increasingly considered as a potential cause for the (re-)emergence of violent conflicts due to shrinking natural resources such as drinkable water and land. However, research on the issue has shown that there is very little empirical evidence of a direct causal link between environmental degradation and violent conflict. In order to set effective priorities for environmental peacebuilding, it is important to understand - particularly in situations of environmental stress - how natural resource conflicts are embedded in social and political dynamics, how they are managed by local institutions, and how these institutional arrangements can be supported through outside intervention. Based on a research project conducted by swisspeace within the framework of the NCCR North-South, the swisspeace annual conference 2007 explored those complex linkages and formulated entry points for improving intervention strategies by external actors.

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L’Angola dans la paix: Autoritarisme et reconversions

Didier Péclard, 2008

Politique Africaine 110: 5-120.

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Les chemins de la "reconversion autoritaire" en Angola

Didier Péclard, 2008

Politique Africaine 110: 5-20.

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Caracas Terminal: enfants de la rue, nomades et sans-papiers

Yves Pedrazzini, 2008

Nouvelles Pratiques Sociales 2008, Vol. 20, No. 2.

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La sociologie urbaine de Paul-Henry Chombart de Lauwe

Une pensée en action dans le Sud

Yves Pedrazzini, 2000

"Paul-Henry Chombart de Lauwe est connu en France et ailleurs en Europe pour avoir été un pionnier de l'anthropologie appliquée dans les années 30, puis, après-guerre, pour avoir participé à " l'invention " de la sociologie urbaine. Mais un autre aspect de ses travaux est valorisé dans les pays du Sud, notamment en Amérique Latine : c'est là qu'il a su inaugurer un champ d'études avec des chercheurs de terrain particulièrement engagés dans la transformation culturelle de leur société ; c'est également dans le Sud qu'il a énoncé les principes de la "recherche-action", dont l'élément central est la participation des habitants aux projets, qu'ils soient riches ou pauvres. C'est ainsi que l'on peut dire qu'il n'est pas étranger à l'actuelle reconnaissance de la culture des quartiers, cités, barrios ou favelas."

Espaces et Sociétés 2000, No. 103, pp. 97-111

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Bosque Urbano: proyecto modelo de comunidad verde. El ejemplo de Los Guido-Orowe

Maria Angelina Perez Gutierrez, 2007

In: Larangeira , Adriana de Araujo, eds., Regularización de Asentamientos Informales en América Latina (CD-Rom), Cambridge, USA

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An analysis of the spatial and temporal patterns of highly pathogenic avian influenza occurrence in Vietnam using national surveillance data

Dirk U. Pfeiffer, Michael Epprecht, Vincent Martin, Phan Q. Minh, M. J. Otte, 2007

The Veterinary Journal. 174(2):302-309

Sexual and Reproductive Resilience of Adolescents in Ghana and Tanzania

Constanze Pfeiffer, Collins Ahorlu, 2010

Flyer of research project on "Sexual and reproductive resilience".

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Preservation of Modern Architecture: The neglected heritage of modern architecture and why it needs to be preserved

Yongtanit Pimonsathean, 2008

In: Keeping Up Modern Thai Architecture. Bangkok: Thailand Creative & Design Center, pp 80-85.

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Researchers' roles in knowledge co-production: Experience from sustainability research in Kenya, Switzerland, Bolivia and Nepal

Christian Pohl, Sebastien Boillat, Patricia Fry, Ghana Gurung, Gertrude Hirsch Hadorn, Chinwe Ifejika Speranza, Boniface Kiteme, Stephan Rist, Flurina Schneider , Elvira Serrano, Urs Wiesmann, Anne B. Zimmermann, 2010

Co-production of knowledge between academic and non-academic communities is a prerequisite for research aiming at more sustainable development paths. Sustainability researchers face three challenges in such co-production: (a) addressing power relations; (b) interrelating different perspectives on the issues at stake; and (c) promoting a previously negotiated orientation towards sustainable development. A systematic comparison of four sustainability research projects in Kenya (vulnerability to drought), Switzerland (soil protection), Bolivia and Nepal (conservation vs. development) shows how the researchers intuitively adopted three different roles to face these challenges: the roles of reflective scientist, intermediary, and facilitator of a joint learning process. From this systematized and iterative self-reflection on the roles that a researcher can assume in the indeterminate social space where knowledge is co-produced, we draw conclusions regarding training.

Science and Public Policy 37(4):267-281. DOI: 10.3152/030234210X496628

Beyond Economics: Analysing Micro-Finance from Women's Perspectives Using Sustainable Livelihood Framework

Smita Premchander, Jason Klinck, 2006

In: Premchander S, Müller C, editors. 2006. Gender and Sustainable Development: Case Studies from NCCR North-South. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South. Bern: Geographica Bernensia, pp. 147-170.

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The project process in Havana: A space for pedagogical innovation

Adriana Rabinovich, 2008

In: lapa, editors. Teaching and research in architectural education. Lausanne: EPFL.

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Espaces forestiers, système de production agraire et dégradation des forêts à Madagascar

L’importance des logiques économiques dans l'aménagement des terroirs

Bruno Ramamonjisoa, 2005

"La dégradation de l'espace résiduel forestier constitue un des problèmes majeurs du développement agricole à Madagascar. Malgré l'importance de l'aide internationale dans le cadre de la mise en œuvre du PNAE les forêts se sont dégradées à un rythme de 1,7% par an. Aux lacunes techniques d'encadrement paysan et l'insuffisance des connaissances sur la forêt Malgache (croissance lente, relief accidenté) ont été proposées des solutions institutionnelles qui prônent la responsabilisation des acteurs locaux dans la gestion forestière. Cet article vise à évaluer la pertinence des outils institutionnels et des concepts utilisés pour la protection des forêts à Madagascar à partir d'analyse institutionnelle et spatiale par comparaison des normes juridiques et techniques avec les pratiques réelles (analyse des filières et diagnostic technique) [...]".

Terre Malgache 2005, No. 24, pp. 92-114

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Origines et impacts des politiques de gestion des ressources naturelles à Madagascar

Bruno Ramamonjisoa, 2004

"An investigation of the impact of policies of the natural resources on Madagascar uncovered a number of deficiencies. A widely recommended participative approach is reaching its limits. The impartiality of the actors involved is at stake. Illicit product networks play an important role in the redistribution of commercial income. Strategies that weaken the role of the state should be reversed."

Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Forstwesen 2004, Vol. 155, No. 11, pp. 467-475

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Disparities in parasitic infections, perceived ill health and access to health care among poorer and less poor schoolchildren of rural Côte d'Ivoire

Giovanna Raso, Barbara Matthys, Eliézer K. N'Goran, Mamadou Ouattara, Kigbafori D. Silué, Marcel Tanner, Abale Toty, Jürg Utzinger, Penelope Vounatsou, Ahoua Yapi, 2005

"Differences in the state of health between rural and urban populations living in Africa have been described, yet only few studies analysed inequities within poor rural communities. We investigated disparities in parasitic infections, perceived ill health and access to formal health services among more than 4000 schoolchildren from 57 primary schools in a rural area of western Côte d'Ivoire, as measured by their socioeconomic status. [...] Our study provides evidence for inequities among schoolchildren's parasitic infection status, perceived ill health and access to health care in a large rural part of Côte d'Ivoire. These findings call for more equity-balanced parasitic disease control interventions, which in turn might be an important strategy for poverty alleviation."

Tropical Medicine & International Health 2005, Vol. 10, Issue 1, pp. 42–57

Available from: Blackwell Synergy

Multiple parasite infections and their relationship to self-reported morbidity in a community of rural Côte d'Ivoire

Giovanna Raso, Cinthia A. Adjoua, Marc-Emmanuel Dumas, Elaine Holmes, Anne Luginbühl, Barbara Matthys, Eliézer K. N'Goran, Kigbafori D. Silué, Burton H. Singer, Marcel Tanner, Norbert T. Tian-Bi, Jürg Utzinger, Penelope Vounatsou, Yulan Wang, 2004

"Concomitant parasitic infections are common in the developing world, yet most studies focus on a single parasite in a narrow age group. We investigated the extent of polyparasitism and parasite associations, and related these findings to self-reported morbidity. [...] Our data confirm that polyparasitism is very common in rural Côte d'Ivoire and that people have clear perceptions about the morbidity caused by some of these parasitic infections. Our findings can be used for the design and implementation of sound intervention strategies to mitigate morbidity and co-morbidity."

International Journal of Epidemiology 2004, Vol. 33, No. 5, pp. 1092-1102

Full text available from: Oxford Journals

Spatial risk prediction and mapping of Schistosoma mansoni infections among schoolchildren living in western Côte d'Ivoire

Giovanna Raso, Barbara Matthys, Eliézer K. N'Goran, Marcel Tanner, Jürg Utzinger, Penelope Vounatsou, 2005

"The objectives of this study were (1) to examine risk factors for Schistosoma mansoni infection among schoolchildren living in western Côte d'Ivoire, and (2) to carry forward spatial risk prediction and mapping at non-sampled locations [...]. Results showed that age, sex, the richest wealth quintile, elevation and rainfall explained the geographical variation of the school prevalences of S. mansoni infection. The goodness of fit of different spatial models revealed that age, sex and socio-economic status had a stronger influence on infection prevalence than environmental covariates. The generated risk map can be used by decision-makers for the design and implementation of schistosomiasis control in this setting. If successfully validated elsewhere, this approach can guide control programmes quite generally."

Parasitology 2005, Vol. 131, Issue 1, pp. 97-108

Available from: Cambridge Univeristy Press

Frequency of Malaria and Glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Tajikistan

Cornelia Rebholz, Daniel Maselli, Anette Michel, Karimov Saipphudin, Kaspar Wyss, 2006

During the Soviet era, malaria was close to eradication. However, since the early 1990s, the disease has been on the rise again. Analysis revealed high rates of malaria transmission and clearly indicates that malaria is a serious health issue in specific regions of Tajikistan.

Malaria Journal 2006, 5:51

Available online from: Malaria Journal

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An Urban Monitor as support for a participative management of developing cities

Alexandre Repetti, R. Prélaz-Droux, 2003

"Urban management is a complex process, which requires a sizeable information base and a large coordination between the actors who are managing the city. In developing countries, this management is made even more difficult by a lack of financial means and technical skills. For this reason among others, the classical instruments for planning are inefficient. Starting from this fact, this paper proposes a participative planning and management tool, developed through a concrete case study: the city of Thiès, in Senegal.
Participation, individual capacities and coordination have been identified as key factors for improving the efficiency of the system of actors in charge of the urban management. Therefore, the proposed method focuses on information, communication and training. In parallel, an Urban Monitor (participative system of geographical information and indicators) has been developed and implemented, for an improvement of the information and communication structuring.
This original approach allows combining the concepts of Research Action Training with participative methods and the new information and communication technologies. Based on a dynamic and geographical view of the urban planning, it integrates tools adapted to the contextual specificities. Through these original aspects, it opens great perspectives in the fields of participative urban management and the implementation of good governance."

Habitat International 2003, Vol. 27, No. 4, pp. 653-667

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Entre crue et glissement de terrain en périphérie de Cuzco (Pérou) : un risque à prendre pour être en ville

Nicolas Rey, 2005

Problèmes d’Amérique Latine

La construction du risque urbain en périphérie nord-est de Cuzco (Pérou)

Nicolas Rey, 2005

L’ordinaire Latino-Américain

Diálogo intra e intercientífico entre comunidades ontológicas

Stephan Rist, 2006

In: Delgado F, Escobar C, editors. 2006. Diálogo intercultural e intercientífico para el fortalecimiento de las ciencias de los pueblos indígenas originarios. Serie Cosmovisión y Ciencias No. 2. La Paz, Bolivia. pp. 87-100.

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Einführung zu aktueller Situation in Bolivien

Stephan Rist, 2007

In: Hüttermann E. Ich bin... Lebensgeschichten aus Bolivien

From scientific monoculture to intra- and inter-cultural dialogue

Endogenous development in a North-South perspective

Stephan Rist, Freddy Delgado, Juan San Martin, Urs Wiesmann, 2006

Reshaping sciences, policies and practices for Endogenous Sustainable Development

In: Haverkort B, Reijntjes C, editors. 2006. Moving Worldviews – Reshaping sciences, policies and practices for endogenous sustainable development. COMPAS Series on Worldviews and Sciences No. 4. Netherlands. pp. 312-319.

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From Transfer to Co-production of Knowledge - New Challenges for Research and Extension

Stephan Rist, 2009

In: Tropentag 2008 - International Research on Food Security, Natural Resource Management and Rural Development – Competition for Resources in a Changing World New Drive for Rural Development. Book of Abstracts, Univeristy of Hohenheim, Germany: Cuviller Verlag, Göttingen, pp 580.

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Moving from sustainable management to sustainable governance of natural resources

The role of social learning processes in rural India, Bolivia and Mali

Stephan Rist, Mani Chidambaranathan, Cesar Escobar, Urs Wiesmann, Anne B. Zimmermann, 2007

"The present paper discusses a conceptual, methodological and practical framework within which the limitations of the conventional notion of natural resource management (NRM) can be overcome. NRM is understood as the application of scientific ecological knowledge to resource management. By including a consideration of the normative imperatives that arise from scientific ecological knowledge and submitting them to public scrutiny, ‘sustainable management of natural resources’ can be recontextualised as ‘sustainable governance of natural resources’. This in turn makes it possible to place the politically neutralising discourse of ‘management’ in a space for wider societal debate, in which the different actors involved can deliberate and negotiate the norms, rules and power relations related to natural resource use and sustainable development. [...]"

Journal of Rural Studies 2007, Volume 23, Issue 1, pp. 23-37

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Mythos, Lebensalltag und Wissenschaft im Berggebiet

Stephan Rist, Urs Wiesmann, 2003

In: Jeanneret F, Wastl-Walter D, Wiesmann U, Schwyn M. editors. 2003. Welt der Alpen - Gebirge der Welt. Ressourcen, Akteure, Perspektiven. Bern: Haupt Verlag, pp 159-170.

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Social learning processes and sustainable development.

The emergence and transformation of an indigenous land use system, in the Andes of Bolivia.

Stephan Rist, Freddy Delgado, Urs Wiesmann, 2007

In: Wals A, editor. Social learning towards a sustainable world. Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, pp. 229-244.

The importance of bio-cultural diversity for endogenous development

Stephan Rist, 2007

In: Haverkort B, Rist S, editors. Endogenous Development and Bio-cultural Diversity. The interplay of worldview, globalization and locality. COMPAS series on Worldviews and Sciences Nr. 6. Leusden, Netherlands: Co-edition COMPAS-CDE-University of Bern, p. 14-23.

The Role of Social Learning Processes in the Emergence and Development of Aymara Land Use Systems

Stephan Rist, Freddy Delgado, Urs Wiesmann, 2003

"A typical traditional Andean land-use system was analyzed as the outcome of long-term social learning processes. From this perspective the land-use system is the result of coevolution between society and nature, representing a successive embodiment of ethical principles corresponding to different periods in history. Ethical principles, understood in this study as the main values in which social and spiritual life is rooted, emerge from and are shaped by a process of dialogue between the local worldview and external historical influences. The degree of differentiation among ethical values corresponding to different stages of local history greatly depends on the type of cognitive competence developed by members of a community. The interplay between cognitive competence and concrete social action develops through a system of rotating duties aimed at lifelong learning and development of social competence derived from the ethical principles of the Andean worldview. The equilibrium between cognitive and social competencies creates social coherence, which was and still is necessary for withstanding moments of crisis and conflict. The learning process evolve from single- to double-loop learning, meaning that an individualized understanding of the epistemological basis of ethical values becomes a clear priority. This allows time to experiment with the land-use system as part of a social learning process. The positive conditions supporting social learning processes were a nondualistic worldview, local autonomy and self-determination in social and religious–spiritual life, territorial and productive organization, low levels of formalization of norms, deliberative rather than formal democratic decision making, and a combination of increasingly reflective attitudes and development of specific social competencies among all members of the community."

Mountain Research and Development 2003, Vol. 23, No. 3, pp. 263-270

Available from: BioOne

Adjustment of Smallholder Livestock Producers to External Shocks

The Case of HPAI in Vietnam.

D Roland-Holst, Michael Epprecht, Joachim Otte, 2009

HPAI Research Brief No. 4

Forest Governance in Transition

From the Princely State of Swat and Kalam to the State of Pakistan

Sultan-i- Rome, 2008

The historic Swat valley in the North-West Frontier-Province (NWFP) of Pakistan and its adjoining area were covered in forest since the earliest times. The nineteenth century proved a turning point in respect to the exploitation of these forests when some outsiders, mostly Kaka Khel Mians, started to exploit the forest in the area and extracted timber for export.
Research into the present-day forest issues in NWFP has always recognised the importance of the historical past. However, very little was known about the details of forestry in the areas that comprised the princely state of Swat, and Kalam - both before and during the period of the Princely State of Swat.
The objective of the present study is to cover in detail the Walis period from 1947 till 1969 and also the post-State period; and to show how forests have been managed and used in the Swat State areas and Kalam during the period 1947-2005.

WP2/IP6 Working Paper No. 9.

Zurich: Department of Geography, University of Zurich

Human health benefits from livestock vaccination for brucellosis

Case study

F. Roth, Guy Carrin, G. Chimed-Ochir, Ottorino Cosivi, G. Hutton, Dontor Orkhon, Joachim Otte, Jakob Zinsstag, 2003

"Objective: To estimate the economic benefit, cost-effectiveness, and distribution of benefit of improving human health in Mongolia through the control of brucellosis by mass vaccination of livestock. [...]
Findings: In a scenario of 52% reduction of brucellosis transmission between animals achieved by mass vaccination, a total of 49 027 DALYs could be averted. Estimated intervention costs were US$ 8.3 million, and the overall benefit was US$ 26.6 million. This results in a net present value of US$ 18.3 million and an average benefit–cost ratio for society of 3.2 (2.27–4.37). If the costs of the intervention were shared between the sectors in proportion to the benefit to each, the public health sector would contribute 11%, which gives a cost-effectiveness of US$ 19.1 per DALY averted (95% confidence interval 5.3–486.8). If private economic gain
because of improved human health was included, the health sector should contribute 42% to the intervention costs and the costeffectiveness would decrease to US$ 71.4 per DALY averted.
Conclusion: If the costs of vaccination of livestock against brucellosis were allocated to all sectors in proportion to the benefits, the intervention might be profitable and cost effective for the agricultural and health sectors."

Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2003, Vol. 81, Number 12, pp. 867-876

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Interrelating knowledge processes with institutional and cultural contexts in organic rice farming. Insights from integrated rice and duck farming in the Hongdong community of South Korea

Dominik Rutz, Claudia Zingerli, 2009

Rural Development News (1):23-29.

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Orchard-based agroforestry

S. Sanginboy, Bettina Wolfgramm, 2007

In: Liniger HP, Critchley W, editors. 2007. Where the land is greener. Case studies and analysis of soil and water conservation initiatives worldwide. CTA, Wageningen, pp. 197-200.

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Transition from centralised regime to local initiative.

S. Sanginboy, 2007

In: Liniger HP, Critchley W, editors. 2007. Where the land is greener. Case studies and analysis of soil and water conservation initiatives worldwide. CTA, Wageningen, pp. 201-204.

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Isolation of Salmonella sp. in sludge from septage treatment plant

Graciela Sanguinetti, F. Ferrer, M.C. García, Doulaye Kone, Agnes Montangero, Martin Strauss, C. Tortul, 2005

"Waste stabilization ponds (WSP) are an often-used option to treat faecal sludges collected from on-site sanitation systems. Since agricultural use is one of the most attractive options for sludge disposal, specific guidelines on the hygienic sludge quality must be fulfilled, such as for viable helminth eggs and Salmonella sp. Although Salmonella isolation methods are well known for other types of samples, they are not suitable for faecal sludge. The reason can be attributed to the co-existence of a native bacterial sludge flora masking Salmonella development, especially if this bacteria is present at low concentrations. [...]"

Water Science & Technology 2005, Volume 51, Number 12, pp. 249-252

Available for purchase from: IWA Publishing

Briefing: Counting ‘New Sudan’

Martina Santschi, 2008

Between 22 April and 6 May 2008, Sudan’s fifth population and housing census was conducted in both North and South Sudan. Because it will have a decisive impact on future power and wealth sharing in Sudan, the census has been highly contested, and its outcome is likely to be controversial.
This briefing argues that the hotly contested census not only highlighted existing tensions between the North and the South on topics such as resources, power sharing, and identity but also intensified competition among Southern Sudanese political actors.

African Affairsy 107:631-640

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Im Südsudan ist der Zensus ein hochpolitisches Unterfangen

Martina Santschi, 2008

Erstmals in der Geschichte des Sudans wird eine Volkszählung durchgeführt, die den gesamten Südsudan sowie grosse Teile des Nordens umfasst. Im Zensus spiegeln sich der Machtkampf zwischen Khartum und dem Süden sowie Rivalitäten innerhalb des Südsudans.

NZZ 110, 14.5.2008.

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Alarm – zu viele Nährstoffe im Tha Chin Fluss

Monika Schaffner, Ruth Scheidegger, Irene Wittmer, 2006

"Mit zunehmender landwirtschaftlicher Intensivierung hat sich die Wasserqualität des Tha Chin in Thailand massiv verschlechtert. Ein enormes Problem ist der hohe Nährstoffgehalt des Flusses. Unser Stoffflussmodell zeigt, dass ein Grossteil der Nährstoffe aus der intensiven Fischzucht stammt."

Eawag News 62d December 2006, pp. 18-20.

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Assessment of water quality problems and mitigation potentials by using material flow analysis

A case study in the Tha Chin river catchment, Thailand

Monika Schaffner, Hans-Peter Bader, Thammarat Koottatep, Agnes Montangero, Ruth Scheidegger, Roland Schertenleib, 2005

"Material flow analysis (MFA) is a promising tool for river water quality management. Based on orders-ofmagnitude estimations, the approach provides an overview of pollution problems and their dimensions in a river system, allowing to identify key sources and pathways of pollution, and to evaluate mitigation priorities. The current study aims at investigating MFA to assess river water quality problems and mitigation measures in developing countries, based on a case-study carried out in the Tha Chin River Basin (TRB), Thailand."

Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Role of Water Sciences in Transboundary River Basin Management, Ubon Ratchathani (Thailand), 10-12 March 2005

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Modeling non-point source pollution from rice farming in the Thachin River Basin

Monika Schaffner, Hans-Peter Bader, Ruth Scheidegger, 2011

With the worldwide intensification of agriculture, non-point source pollution of surface waters has become a pressing issue. Conventional river water quality models consider non-point sources as accumulated entries into the rivers and do not investigate into the processes generating the pollution at its source, thus preventing the determination of effective mitigation measures. The models require extensive data inputs, which is a deficiency in many developing and emerging countries with limited data availability. The current study applies a Material Flow Model as a complementary approach to quantify non-point source pollution from agricultural areas. Rice farming in the Thachin River Basin is presented as a case study, with a focus on nutrients. The total nitrogen and phosphorus flows from rice farming to the river system are quantified, the key parameters influencing these flows are determined and potential mitigation measures are discussed. The results show that rice contributes considerable nutrient loads to the Thachin River Basin. Scenario simulations demonstrate that a significant nutrient load reduction could be achieved by following the official recommendations for fertilizer application, thus confirming the local efforts to introduce best management practice. Our results underline the importance of non-point source pollution control in intensive agricultural areas, particularly of tropical lowland delta areas such as the Central Plains of Thailand. The specific benefit of applying a Material Flow Model in this context is that with limited data availability, one can reach an understanding of the system and gain a first overview over its key pollution problems. This can serve as supportive basis for determining consecutive in-depth research requirements.

Paper available at: http://www.springerlink.com/content/2630616v30q61506/?MUD=MP

Modeling the contribution of pig farming to pollution of the Thachin River

Monika Schaffner, Hans-Peter Bader, Ruth Scheidegger, 2009

Rapid growth of the livestock production sector in South-East Asia during recent decades has led to a widespread degradation of ground and surface waters. The Thachin River Basin in Central Thailand serves as a case study for investigating the origins and pathways of nutrient loads produced by intensive pig farming. A mathematical material flow analysis is used to identify key nitrogen flows and the main parameters determining them. Scenarios of the potential for reducing these flows and achieving compliance with current discharge regulations are investigated. The results show that liquid waste discharged from large pig farms and directly discharged waste from small farms are the key nitrogen flows to the river system. The key driving forces are not only the treatment coverage and efficiencies but also the rate of reuse and recycling of the treated product.

Paper available at: http://www.springerlink.com/content/l72t1878k2075942
Year of Publication: 2009

Modeling the contribution of point sources and non-point sources to Thachin River water pollution

Monika Schaffner, Hans-Peter Bader, Ruth Scheidegger, 2009

Paper available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969709004628

The Tha Chin River is Overloaded with Nutrients

Monika Schaffner, Ruth Scheidegger, Irene Wittmer, 2007

"Increasingly intensive farming practices have led to a dramatic deterioration of water quality in the Tha Chin River in Thailand. One major problem is the high level of nutrients. According to our model – based on material flow analysis – intensive aquaculture accounts for a large
proportion of the nutrient inputs."

Eawag News 62d: 18-20.

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Using a Material Flow Analysis Model to Assess River Water Quality Problems and Mitigation Potentials

A case study in the Thachin River, Central Thailand

Monika Schaffner, Hans-Peter Bader, Thammarat Koottatep, Ruth Scheidegger, Roland Schertenleib, 2006

"The Material Flow Analysis carried out for Tha Chin River Basin is illustrated by an in-depth study on nutrient contributions from aquaculture."

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Brucellosis and Q-fever seroprevalences of nomadic pastoralists and their livestock in Chad

Esther Schelling, P. Boerlin, Saada Daoud, Colette Diguimbaye, J. Nicolet, Marcel Tanner, Jakob Zinsstag, 2003

"As a part of a research-and-action partnership between public health and veterinary medicine, the relationships between the seroprevalences of brucellosis and Q-fever in humans and livestock were evaluated in three nomadic communities of Chad (Fulani cattle breeders, and Arab camel and cattle breeders). Nomad camps were visited between April 1999 and April 2000. A total of 860 human and 1637 animal sera were tested for antibodies against Brucella spp., and 368 human and 613 animal sera for Coxiella burnetii. The same indirect ELISA was used for livestock and human sera, and the test characteristics for its use on human sera were evaluated. Twenty-eight people were seropositive for brucellosis (seroprevalence 3.8%). Brucella seroprevalence was higher in cattle (7%) than other livestock, and brucellosis seropositivity was a significant factor for abortion in cattle (OR=2.8). No correlation was found between human brucellosis serostatus and camp proportions of seropositive animals. [...]"

Preventive Veterinary Medicine 2003, Vol. 61, No. 4, pp. 279-293

Available from: ScienceDirect

Morbidity and nutrition patterns of three nomadic pastoralist communities of Chad

Esther Schelling, Saada Daoud, Doumagoum Moto Daugla, P. Diallo, Marcel Tanner, Jakob Zinsstag, 2005

"As a part of an interdisciplinary research and action programme, morbidity and nutritional patterns were assessed in three nomadic communities: Fulani and Arab cattle breeders and Arab camel breeders, of two prefectures in Chad. The predominant morbidity pattern of Chadian nomadic pastoralists (representing approximately 10% of the total population of the country) had not been documented so far. A total of 1092 women, men and children was examined by a physician and interviewed during two surveys in the dry season and one in the wet season (1999–2000). Participants with no complaint were rare. Pulmonary disorders (e.g. bronchitis) were most often diagnosed for children under 5 years of age. Of the adult participants, 4.6% were suspected of tuberculosis. Febrile diarrhoea occurred more often during the wet season when access to clean drinking water was precarious. Malaria was only rarely clinically diagnosed among Arabs during the dry season, whereas Fulani, who stayed in the vicinity of Lake Chad, were also affected during this period. A 24-h dietary recall showed that less Arab women than men consumed milk during the dry season (66% versus 92%). [...]"

Acta Tropica 2005, Volume 95, Issue 1, pp. 16-25

Available from: ScienceDirect

Negotiating Statehood and Humanitarian Assistance in Timor-Leste: an incompatible pair?

Christine Schenk, 2009

In: Christine Cabasset-Semedo, Fréderic Durand, eds. East-Timor. How to build a New Nation in Southeast Asia in the 21st Century; Christine Cabasset-Semedo, Research Institute on Contemporary Southeast Asia, pp. 31-47.

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From conventional to advanced environmental sanitation

Roland Schertenleib, 2005

"The basic concept of collecting domestic liquid waste in water-borne sewer systems goes back more than 100 years and became in the last century the conventional approach to sanitation in urban areas. Over the years, these sewage disposal systems had to be successively upgraded by additional sewage treatment plants increasing investment, operating and maintenance costs. Although these conventional sanitation systems could improve significantly the public health situation in those countries who could afford to install and operate them, it is highly questionable, if they are economically and ecologically sustainable. The large number of people in the developing world who still do not have access to adequate sanitation is a clear indication that the conventional approach to sanitation is not adapted to the socio-economic condition prevailing in most countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Advanced environmental sanitation is aiming not only to protect public health and the integrity of aquatic ecosystems but also to conserve precious freshwater and non-renewable resources. The Bellagio Principles and the Household Centred Environmental Sanitation Approach (HCES) are suggested as guiding principles and a new approach for planing and designing advanced (sustainable) environmental sanitation systems."

Water Science & Technology 2005, Vol. 51, No. 10, pp. 7–14

Available from: IWA Publishing Online

Global Overviews – Searching for Indicators of Core Problems

Barbara Schichler, Urs Wiesmann, 2009

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An Assessment of Trends in the Extent of Swidden in Southeast Asia

Dietrich Schmidt-Vogt, Vu Kim Chi, Truong M. Dao, Michael Epprecht, Martin Hardiono, Andreas Heinimann, Laurent Lacroix, Ole Mertz, Peter Messerli, Thiha Thiha, Pham Van Cu, 2009

In: Human Ecology 37(3):269-280.

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The Tajik Pamirs: The geological setting: hazards and potentials

Jean Schneider, 2003

The Tajik Pamirs: Challenges of Sustainable Development in an Isolated Mountain Region: The present publication provides a summary of the outcomes of the Pamir Strategy Project (PSP). It portrays life in the Pamirs, along with development challenges and options, and presents practical and participatory approaches that can lead to sustainable mountain development. In addition, this publication outlines the lessons learnt within the PSP by presenting and evaluationg methods and apporaches such as participatory village studies, multi-level stakeholder workshops for strategy development, knowledge generation processes, and Geographic Information Systmes as decision support tools for sustainable mountain development.

In: Breu T, and Hurni H, editors. The Tajik Pamirs. Challenges of Sustainable Development in an Isolated Mountain Region. Bern: Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), University of Bern, pp 37-38.

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Sex and the City. Erzählungen alter Männer und Frauen über jugendliche Sexualität und AIDS in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)

Patricia Schwärzler, 2010

In: Dilger H, Hadolt B, editors. Medizin im Kontext: Krankheit und Gesundheit in einer vernetzten Welt. Frankfurt a. M.: Peter Lang Verlag, pp 389-409.

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Fortalecimiento de la organización comunal

Estrategia para la conservación y regeneración de bosques andino

Elvira Serrano, 2004

"Fortalecimiento de la organización comunal: estrategia para la conservación y regeneración de bosques andino" in: Delgado F, Serrano E, Bilbao J. editors. 2004. Agroforesteria en Latinoaméria: Experiencias Locales, Cochabamba, MALEA- AGRUCO, pp. 41-50.

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Incorporating Gender in Research on Indigenous Environmental Knowledge in the Tunari Nation

Elvira Serrano, Sebastien Boillat, Stephan Rist, 2006

In: Premchander S, Müller C, editors. 2006. Gender and Sustainable Development: Case Studies from NCCR North-South. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South. Bern: Geographica Bernensia, pp. 305-327.

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A Critical Analysis of Forest Policies of Pakistan

Implications for Sustainable Livelihoods

Babar Shahbaz, Tanvir Ali, Abid Qaiyum Suleri, 2007

Pakistan has very low forest cover, but these forests are very diverse in nature and of significant importance for the livelihood security of millions of rural people who live in and around these forests. Policies, institutions and processes form the context within which individuals and households construct and adapt livelihood strategies, on the other hand these institutionally shaped livelihood strategies may have an impact on the sustainability of natural resource use. The present paper aims to critically analyse the forest policies of Pakistan. Implications for sustainable forest management and livelihood security of forest dependent people are also given.

Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 2007, Vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 441-453

Available for purchase from: SpringerLink.com

Access to livlihood assets: Insights from South Asia on how institutions work

Babar Shahbaz, Urs Geiser, Ulrike Müller-Böker, Sadaf, Tahira Sadaf, Tahira, Lilith Schärer, C. P. Vinod, 2010

The present contribution is an attempt to understand the conditions that impede some households and social groups in securing a decent livelihood by drawing on ‘purported’ facilitating institutions. It is generally agreed that access to livelihood assets is negotiated through institutions. However, the way in which these institutions operate in everyday practice and in specific contexts is less well understood. The four case studies presented here therefore analyse how customary norms and state regulations work. The article argues that a deeper understanding of the working of institutions, which in turn influence who is excluded from and who is entitled to access a particular livelihood asset, also provides a bridge to evidence-based development support.

In: Hurni H, Wiesmann U, editors; with an international group of co-editors. Global Change and Sustainable Development: A Synthesis Regional Experiences from Research Partnerships. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, University of Bern, Vol. 5. Bern, Switzerland: Geographica Bernensia, pp 283-297.

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The political economy of forest management in Pakistan.

Babar Shahbaz, Abid Qaiyum Suleri, 2009

Deforestation in Pakistan is one of the highest in the world, despite rigorous institutional changes in forest management paradigms. This paper attempts to provide an explanatory analysis of forest governance and deforestation and its consequences in Pakistan, to examine the interaction between forests and local livelihoods, and to identify the factors responsible for deforestation and the ineffectiveness of state forest management strategies. The paper argues that some of the main barriers to effective and sustainable forest management are a lack of understanding of local livelihood strategies, lack of political will in the part of state actors, lack of sense of ownership of forests by the local communities, and the presence of powerful timber smugglers.

In: : Cornin R, Pandya A, editors. Exploiting Natural Resources: Growth, Instability, and Conflict in the Middle East and Asia. Washington DC: The Henry L. Stimson Centre, pp 21-32

Available from: Stimson

Trees, trust and the state: A comparison of participatory forest management in Pakistan and Tanzania

Babar Shahbaz, Tobias Haller, Gimbage Ernest Mbeyale, 2008

This paper attempts to analyse the trust, power relations and emerging conflicts as state and non-state actors try to adjust to their new roles in the perspective of participatory forest management initiatives in Pakistan and Tanzania. Based on historical and empirical context, we argue that the institutional base responsible for enhancing trust between state and local actors is rather weak in both countries. The major obstacles are that the state actors are not willing to fully devolve power; and the responsibility - as delegated by the state - of newly created institutions demands forest protection rather than defining management rights.

Anthropogenic dynamic and transformation of Kyrgyz range vegetation

Jyldyz Shigaeva, L Fillipovskaya, A Nasyrova , V. Shikhotov, 2005

In Russian.

Proceedings of IUK Conference, November 25-26, 2005. Vol. 4. Bishkek, pp 225-235.

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Assessment of degradation of pasture ecosystems in the Sokuluk River Basin

Jyldyz Shigaeva, V. Shikhotov, 2005

Article in Russian

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Land Resources and Household Strategies in a Changed Socio-economic Environment – Sokuluk River Basin (Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan)

Jyldyz Shigaeva, Michael Kollmair, Daniel Maselli, Peter Niederer, Almaz Shanazarov, 2005

This conference paper examines past and current land use and its impact on land resources, as well as the formation of new livelihood strategies in a post soviet environment. The paper explores the case of a side valley (the Sokuluk River Basin, SRB) of the Chuy valley in northern Kyrgyzstan. This semiarid, and intensively irrigated area is one of the country’s most important breadbasket.

Open Science Conference on Global Change in Mountain Regions, Perth, Scotland, 2-6 October 2005

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The Tajik Pamirs: The industrial and service sectors

Patrick Sieber, 2003

The Tajik Pamirs: Challenges of Sustainable Development in an Isolated Mountain Region: The present publication provides a summary of the outcomes of the Pamir Strategy Project (PSP). It portrays life in the Pamirs, along with development challenges and options, and presents practical and participatory approaches that can lead to sustainable mountain development. In addition, this publication outlines the lessons learnt within the PSP by presenting and evaluationg methods and apporaches such as participatory village studies, multi-level stakeholder workshops for strategy development, knowledge generation processes, and Geographic Information Systmes as decision support tools for sustainable mountain development.

In: Breu T, and Hurni H, editors. The Tajik Pamirs. Challenges of Sustainable Development in an Isolated Mountain Region. Bern: Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), University of Bern, pp 24-25.

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Nature conservation and sustainable development

Reto Soliva, Michael Kollmair, Ulrike Müller-Böker, 2003

In: Domroes M. editor. 2003. Translating Development: The Case of Nepal. New Delhi, Social Science Press.

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Multi-Stakeholder Workshops - A Forum for Deliberative Democracy?

The Theory of Deliberative Democracy as applied to the Multi-Stakeholder Workshops of Swisspeace/NCCR North-South Research Project on "Operationalizing Human Security".

P. Stadler, 2006

Conflicting strategies for contested resources: Pastoralists' responses to uncertainty in post-socialist rural Kyrgyzstan

Bernd Steimann, 2012

Based on a case study in rural Kyrgyzstan, this chapter explores the multiple constraints which shape agro-pastoral practices today and how local households respond to them. To do so, it distinguishes between different forms of uncertainty, that is, social and political, livelihoods, knowledge and ecological uncertainties. Results show that Kyrgyz agro-pastoralists must respond to much more than ecological uncertainties only, and that the extent of these uncertainties differs a lot between the rich and the poor.

Steimann B. 2012. Conflicting strategies for contested resources: Pastoralists' responses to uncertainty in post-socialist rural Kyrgyzstan. In: Kreutzmann H. (editor). Pastoral Practices in High Asia. Agency of 'development' effected by modernisation, resettlement and transformation. Dordrecht, Heidelberg, New York, London: Springer, pp. 145-160.


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Seroprevalence of Q-fever in febrile individuals in Mali

P. Steinmann, Bassirou Bonfoh, O. Péter, Esther Schelling, M. Traoré, Jakob Zinsstag, 2005

Tropical Medecine and International Health 10(6):612-617.

In: Tropical Medicine & International Health

Food Security - Where we are (current status) and where we want to go (way forward)

Abid Qaiyum Suleri, S. A. Ramay, 2009

This publication first draws a global picture of food security and examines why food prices have soared. Later, it analyses the Pakistan situation accounting for all of the following aspects of food security: Food availability, access to food, food absorption and sustainability of availability and access. Ultimately, it looks at ways to improve the availability of food at affordable prices.

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Pakistan Forest Digest, Vol 1, No.1 (Apr-Jun 2010)

Abid Qaiyum Suleri, Babar Shahbaz, 2010

The Pakistan Forest Digest (PFD) is a quarterly series of digests focused on the forest related issues, government and non-government endeavors, community concerns and rights reported by the leading Pakistani newspapers and periodicals.

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Pakistan Forest Digest, Vol.1, No.2 (Jul-Sept 2010)

Abid Qaiyum Suleri, Babar Shahbaz, 2010

The Pakistan Forest Digest (PFD) is a quarterly series of digests focused on the forest related issues, government and non-government endeavors, community concerns and rights reported by the leading Pakistani newspapers and periodicals.

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Women's right to land ownership in Swat State Areas

The Swat State era and the post-State scenario.

Rome Sultan-i-, 2008

<7i>Pakistan Journal of Gender Studies 2008(1): 105-121.

Effect of repeated application of microbial larvicides on malaria transmission in central Côte d'Ivoire

Emile S Tchicaya, Akre M Adja, Guéladio Cissé, Jennifer Keiser, Benjamin G. Koudou, Marcel Tanner, Yao Tano, Jürg Utzinger, 2009

Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 25(3):382-385.

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Improvement of Urban Environmental Sanitation Services (UESS) in Ban Hatsady Tai, Vientiane City, Lao PDR

Saykham Thammanosouth, T. Chanthala, M. Duannouluck, Antoine Morel, 2008

The paper aims at introducing the HCES planning approach and its underpinning principles, and illustrates the strengths and limitations of its application in Ban Hatsady Tai.

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Coping on women’s back: Social capital-vulnerability links through a gender lens

Susan Thieme, Karin Astrid Siegmann, 2007

Processes of migration are embedded in social networks, more recently conceptualised as social capital, from sending households to migrants’ formal and informal associations at their destinations. These processes are often assumed to reduce individuals, households and economies’ vulnerabilities and thus attract policy-makers’ attention to migration management. The paper aims to conceptualise the gendered interface between social capital and vulnerability. It utilises Bourdieu’s notion of social capital as an analytical starting point. To illuminate our conceptual thoughts we refer to empirical examples from migration research from various Asian countries.
Bourdieu’s theory highlights the social construction of gendered vulnerability. It goes beyond that by identifying the investment in symbolic capital of female honour as an indirect investment in social and, ultimately, economic capital.

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Experiencing space-time: the stretched lifeworlds of migrant workers in India

Susan Thieme, Ben Rogaly, 2012

In the relatively rare instances when the spatialities of temporary migrant work, workers’ journeys, and labour-market negotiations have been the subject of scholarly attention, there has been little work that integrates time into the analysis. Building on a case study of low-paid and insecure migrant manual workers in the context of rapid economic growth in India, we examine both material and subjective dimensions of these workers’ spatiotemporal experiences.

Rogaly B, Thieme S. 2012. Experiencing space-time: the stretched lifeworlds of migrant workers in India. Environment and Planning A 44:2086-2100. doi:10.1068/a44493


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Migration Patterns and Remittance Transfer in Nepal

A Case Study of Sainik Basti in Western Nepal

Susan Thieme, Simone Wyss, 2005

"International labour migration is a main livelihood strategy for many people in Nepal. This article analyses the migration process from the perspective of migrants and their non-migrating household members, exploring the institutional regulations that structure the organization of migration and the cash flows involved. The results are based on a case study conducted in Sainik Basti, Western Nepal, in 2002. The article shows that for different destinations there are specific ways of organizing migration. These country specific ways of organizing migration demand specific assets from prospective migrants and their household members and, therefore, influence their choice of destination. Savings are remitted back home mainly by carrying them personally or by using the hundi system. [...]"

International Migration 2005, Vol. 43, No. 5, pp. 59–98

Available from: Blackwell Synergy

Social Networks and Migration

Far West Nepalese Labour Migrants in Delhi

Susan Thieme, 2007

Based on existing research about the importance of migration, questions need to be raised about how Nepalese migrants live in receiving countries, what individual or structural backgrounds enable migrants and their families to benefit from migration, and what prevents them from doing so. How do migrants manage their daily lives, how do they gain access to resources, and what are their reasons for doing so?
The principal aim of the study is to enhance understanding of the process of migration and its contribution to the livelihoods of people from rural areas in Nepal. It also aims to help develop interventions that will maximise the benefits of migration.

NCCR North-South Dialogue, No. 15

Bern, NCCR North-South

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Social networks and migration: Women's livelihoods between Far West Nepal and Delhi

Susan Thieme, Ulrike Müller-Böker, 2010

Although migration from Nepal has increasingly been the subject of research since the 1990s, there are very few publications about gender and migration in Nepal. We want to contribute to fill this research gap by presenting a case study of women’s livelihoods in the context of labour migration, both as migrants themselves and as women who remain in the villages. The migrants originate from Bajura district of the Far Western Development Region, where migration to India has been a common occurrence for several generations and the economy can be described as “agri-migratory” (Bruslé 2008: 241). The analysis sheds light on women’s individual aspirations as well as their position within their families and communities. It also explores how kinship networks and social capital shape women’s lives and whether migration facilitates social change.

In: European Bulletin of Himalayan Research 35-36: 107-121.

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Student mobility, experiences of return and employment in Kyrgyzstan

Susan Thieme, 2010

The SRC’s Research Fellows Working Paper, October 2011

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Sustaining Livelihoods in Multi-local Settings

Possible Theoretical Linkages Between Transnational Migration and Livelihood Studies

Susan Thieme, 2008

"Worldwide, an increasing number of people are diversifying their income sources through migration. This mobility in most cases involves only parts of the family migrating, and this results in people's livelihoods taking on a multi-local dimension. Scholars have been studying this increasing mobility and multi-locality by applying either a livelihoods approach or one of transnational migration, but they rarely combine the two. However, one major criticism of both approaches is that they do not make the link to other existing social theories and do not therefore permit any fundamental analysis of the relationship between the subject and society, the power relations within a society and the changes human mobility effects to power relations. To address this criticism, I shall discuss existing innovative research and propose Bourdieu's Theory of Practice as a means to fill this theoretical gap."

Mobilities 2008, Vol. 3, Issue 1, pp. 51-71

Available from: Informaworld

Transnationale soziale Netzwerke und Migration

Nepalis aus Far West Nepal in Delhi

Susan Thieme, Michael Kollmair, Ulrike Müller-Böker, 2006

"Kann Migration zur Reduzierung von Armut beitragen? Immer häufiger betonen internationale Entwicklungsorganisationen die wachsende Bedeutung und das große Potenzial der Migration. Gleichzeitig hat sich die Migrationsforschung facettenreich weiterentwickelt und befasst sich unter anderem auch mit der Frage, wie Migrationshaushalte eine plurilokale Lebensunterhaltsstrategie meistern. Der Artikel zeigt Beispiele von Organisationsformen, mit denen Migrierende aus dem ruralen Nepal die Möglichkeit schaffen, in der Megastadt Delhi ihre Existenz zu sichern. Dabei wird ersichtlich, dass der Beitrag von Migration zur Existenzsicherung weit über die Bedeutung von Geldüberweisungen hinausgeht."

Geographische Rundschau 2006, Vol. 58, No. 10, pp.

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Where to return to? Rural-urban interlinkages in times of internal and international labour migration [In Russian].

Susan Thieme, 2008

In: Social Research Center (AUCA), editor. Kyrgyzstan Today: Policy Briefs on Civil Society, Migration, Islam, Corruption. Bishkek: American University of Central Asia, pp 108-113.

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Also available in English.

Where to return to? Rural-urban interlinkages in times of internal and international labour migration.

Susan Thieme, 2008

In: Social Research Center (AUCA), editor. Kyrgyzstan Today: Policy Briefs on Civil Society, Migration, Islam, Corruption. Bishkek: American University of Central Asia, pp 108-113.

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Also available in Russian.

Les herpès génitaux au dispensaire anti-vénérien de l’institut national d’hygiène publique d’Abidjan

Aspects épidémiologiques et cliniques à propos de 250 cas recensés de janvier 1994 à juillet 2000

I. Tiembré, B. V. J. Benié, N. S. Dagnan, K. D. Ekra, N.M. Koffi, K. Koffi, Atioumouna Kone, K. O. N'guetta, J. Tagliante-Saracino, P. Zengbé, 2006

"Notre étude réalisée au dispensaire antivénérien (DAV) de l’Institut National d’Hygiène Publique d’Abidjan avait pour objectif d’étudier les cas d’herpès génital reçus et pris en charge dans ce service de janvier 1994 à juillet 2000. Nous avons retrouvé 250 cas d’herpès génital sur un total de 18 069 consultants soit une prévalence globale de 1,4 %. Les patients présentant l’herpès génital étaient en majorité des hommes (91 %); Célibataires dans (70 %) dont l’age était compris entre 20 et 39 ans (88 %) et exerçant un métier dans 63,70 % des cas. Les principaux sièges des lésions étaient le sillon balano-prépucial chez l’homme (64 %) et chez la femme au niveau des grandes lèvres (71 %). 62 % des patients avaient consulté pour primo-infection contre 38 % de récurrence (2 à 4 chez le même patient). L’association herpès génital avec les autres Infections Sexuellement Transmissibles a été retrouvée. Il ressort de cette étude que l’herpès génital occupe une place non négligeable dans les consultations au dispensaire antivénérien de l’Institut National d’Hygiène Publique, et l’évolution est marquée par plusieurs récurrences chez le même malade."

Médecine d’Afrique Noire 2006, Vol. 53, No. 2, pp. 79-82

Hard copy available from: Médecine d'Afrique Noire

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Compendium des Systèmes et Technologies d’Assainissement

Elizabeth Tilley, Christoph Lüthi, Antoine Morel, Roland Schertenleib, Christian Zurbruegg, 2009

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies

In French.

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Un rôle salutaire pour la recherche scientifique

Andres Tschannen, Guéladio Cissé, O. Girardin, Eliézer K. N'Goran, Marcel Tanner, Jürg Utzinger, 2005

Bulletin Medicus Mundi Schweiz 98: 42-45.

In: Tropical Medicine & International Health

Enhancing Women's Participation in Mountain Tourism, Prospects and Challenges.

P.K. Upadhaya, Bishnu Raj Upreti, 2008

Women's participation in mountain tourism in Nepal started during the 1920s and 1930s with portering. It has now reached a stage, though in small numbers, where female trek leaders are leading solo women tourist trekkers; working as team leaders in mountain expeditions; and operating hotels, lodges, restaurants, trekking and travel agencies in top management positions. However, most of their involvement is at lower level jobs in various organized sub-sectors of tourism. Will balanced development of the tourism sector be possible without enhancing the equitable share of women workers in the access to and control over the benefits from mountain tourism in a context where more than fifty percent of total numbers engaged in the industry are women? This brief paper attempts to answer this question.

There is a great need for a pro-women (focusing on protecting and safeguarding of women) tourism policy, action plan and programs to increase the number of mountain women improve their status in mountain tourism.

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Mountain tourism in Nepal:

An overview on the sustainable inclusion of local communities.

P.K. Upadhaya, Bishnu Raj Upreti, 2009

The widespread involvement of local people in mountain tourism is not only mandatory for the comprehensive development of mountain tourism, but also for the fulfillment of the livelihoods related inevitable needs of mountain people as key local stakeholders. The post-conflict Nepal after the end of a decade long (1996-2006) violent conflict is passing through the fragile period of transition. The local communities' participation is increasingly important to prevent their discontent and frustration, and, if not fulfilled, can further induce the possibility of the recurrence of any kind of unwarranted conflict in Nepal.
A sincere review on existing mountain tourism related policies and regulation and molding these measures to facilitate local people's participation will be justifiable for the sustainable development of mountain tourism in Nepal.

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Nepal From War to Peace

Bishnu Raj Upreti, 2012

Nepal is formally ending the ten years of armed conflict (1996–2006) waged by the Communist Party of Nepal (hereinafter referred to as Maoist) and the government by signing the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) in November 2006, but it is within a complicated transition period because of delay or inaction to implement the provisions stipulated in the CPA.

Upreti BR. 2012. Nepal From War to Peace. Peace Review: A Journal of Social Justice 24(1):102-107.

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Changing Political Context, New Power Relations and Hydro-Conflict in Nepal

Bishnu Raj Upreti, 2007

In: Rotberg F, Swain A, editors. Natural Resources Security in South Asia: Nepal's Water. Stockholm: Institute for Security and Development Policy, pp 15-65.

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Concentration and monopolisation of seed market: Impact on food security and farmer’s rights in mountains.

Bishnu Raj Upreti, Y. Ghale, 2008

The common proverb “Save seed in famine and save life in crowd” has even more relevance in the context of corporate globalisation and privatisation of genetic resources. This statement vividly highlights the importance of plant genetic resources in sustaining production system, respecting farmer’s rights and protecting national sovereignty of country of origin of those genetic resources. Protection, promotion and sustainable use of genetic resources for food and agriculture have even specific importance to secure local control over food production, distribution and utilisation system. Therefore, seed has an imperative economic prospect, socio-cultural value, political essence and continuation of viable production system.

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Effect of conflict on water resources in Nepal [in Nepali]

Bishnu Raj Upreti, 2009

In Nepali

In: Hamro Sampada (Our Heritage) 8(11):1-3.

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Impacts of armed conflict on mountain biodiversity.

Bishnu Raj Upreti, 2009

Nepal's armed conflict (1996-2006) has created enormous impact in biodiversity, the economy and society. This paper discusses only the impacts on biodiversity.
The main negative impacts documented from the study were: A loss of unique habitats for wildlife within ecosystems once the vegetation for such specialised habitat were destroyed; loss of medicinal plant resources after the forests were used as battlefields; and severe disruption of conservation activities, leading to intensified unsustainable exploitation as law and order was broken down by the armed conflict.

In: Mountain Forum Bulletin 9(2): 11-12.

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Interrelationship between conflict and federalism in Nepal [in Nepali]

Bishnu Raj Upreti, 2009

In Nepali

Human Rights Monitor 5(12): 5-12.

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Livelihoods Insecurity and Social Conflict in Nepal

Bishnu Raj Upreti, Ulrike Müller-Böker, 2010

In this book, the basic causes of livelihood insecurity and social tension and conflict in Nepal are documented and analysed and possible ways of addressing these challenges envisioned. We do not claim that this book gives a comprehensive framework for addressing all the challenge this country is facing, but we firmly believe that it will contribute to a deeper understanding of the livelihood complexity of poor people and elucidate potential ways to enhance their livelihood security and contribute to solving social conflict in Nepal.

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Nepal's pathway for peaceful transformation and challenges ahead

Bishnu Raj Upreti, 2007

Readings on Governance and Development 8: 18-25.

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Relationships between Resource Governance and Resource Conflict

Nepalese Experience

Bishnu Raj Upreti, 2004

This paper highlights the relationships between resource rights, governance practices and conflict in Nepal. The discussion is focused on policies, strategies, laws and regulations, and decisions and actual governing practices in natural resources. The good governance framework is used as a conceptual basis to analyse the relationships. This framework is for the purpose of this paper consensus oriented, participatory, guided by the rule of law, effective and efficient, accountable and transparent, responsive, equitable and inclusive. Within this framework, the paper examines the role of resource governance in creating or minimising scarcity and conflict in Nepal. It is based on my current research project on ‘livelihood security, environmental security and conflict mitigation’ in Nepal. It highlights power relations, feelings of injustice, mistrust, the intervention of new technologies, contradiction between customary practices and statutory laws as sources of research. Resource conflicts produce both positive and negative consequences and alter existing social relations, as they induce change in resource management regimes, policy process, livelihood strategies, land use patterns, gender relations, power structures, and individual and collective behaviour. This paper also establishes the linkages between resource conflict and the ongoing Maoist insurgency in Nepal.

Journal of Legal Pluralism 2004, No. 50, pp. 71-100

Available for purchase from: Journal of Legal Pluralism

Restructuring Nepal Army: A Conflict Transformation Perspective

Bishnu Raj Upreti, 2007

Nepal is at a crossroads of fundamental socio-political transformation. Facilitating and sustaining such transformation requires new vision, new constitutional framework, new institutional arrangement, new instruments and new commitment. Conduct, action and behaviour of the political parties, judiciary, security (military, armed police, civilian police, intelligence and other security related institutions) and bureaucracy are some of the fundamental institutions that determine success or failure of materializing fundamental sociopolitical transformation. Hence, substantial reorientation of these institutions is a precondition to make them relevant to the changing political context. This paper discusses the restructuring of military, one of the fundamentally important security components of security sector, from the conflict transformation2 and peace building perspective. The objective of this paper is to initiate a constructive debate on the need and approach of restructuring of Nepal Army in the changing political context. The paper brings argument that the relevance of transformation of Nepal Army is essential at the present context.

Nepali Journal of Contemporary Studies VII(1): 69-94

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Security sector reform in Nepal: Challenges and opportunities

Bishnu Raj Upreti, Peter Vanhoutte, 2009

Nepal is in a critical transition from war to peace and is therefore facing several transitional challenges. One of them is transforming the security sector, which has operated within a highly centralized and unitary political system for more than two centuries. When the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) waged an armed insurrection in 1996, the state security system was reshaped to counter the insurgency. Hence, one of the biggest challenges is to transform the counterinsurgency and focus on ensuring that existing security policies, strategies and organizations fit into the changed political context. This chapter argues that the ongoing peace process will not be completed nor will democracy be stabilized without a thorough transformation of the security sector.

In: Born H, Schnabel A, editors. Security Sector Reform in Challenging Environments. Geneva: LIT Verlag, pp 165-187.

Available for Purchase from: Lit-Verlag

The state, resource governance, and conflict: Reflections from South Asia.

Bishnu Raj Upreti, Babar Shahbaz, Sagar Raj Sharma, C. P. Vinod, 2010

The role of the state in modes of resource governance is increasingly becoming a source of conflict over natural resources. Based on studies of resource governance practices in South Asia, this contribution argues that conflict or collaboration in natural resource management depends upon the legitimacy of the state and its interaction and cooperation with resource users. When the state shows a controlling attitude towards managing natural resources, conflict and tension are unavoidable. On the other hand, challenges arise in resource management if the state is too weak to provide a conducive policy framework, institutional arrangements, and a facilitating environment. This article concludes that expanding the horizontal and vertical legitimacy of the state is essential to promote sustainable governance of natural resourc¬es and to resolve associated conflicts.

In: Hurni H, Wiesmann U, editors; with an international group of co-editors. Global Change and Sustainable Development: A Synthesis of Regional Experiences from Research Partnerships. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, University of Bern, Vol. 5. Bern, Switzerland: Geographica Bernensia, pp 299-312.

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Baseline Study GTZ-CCD Pasture Management Project, Kyrgyzstan

Inam Ur-Rahim, Daniel Maselli, 2008

Improving Sustainable Grazing Management in Mountain Rangelands of the Hindu Kush–Himalaya

An Innovative Participatory Assessment Method in Northern Pakistan

Inam Ur-Rahim, Daniel Maselli, 2004

"[...] The combined and participatory approach suggested in this paper describes how a more tangible, quantifiable relationship can be established between individual plant and community level processes. Such an approach, which involves herders in expert assessment and data collection, enables better monitoring and forecasting of those changes in plant community composition that are relevant for livestock husbandry and sustainable resource use. In this study, the highest dry matter production (DMP) was recorded at altitudes between 1200 m (with 1945 kg/ha) and 1600 m (with 1921 kg/ha). In “freely grazed rangeland”—where access is not limited and no manual improvement measures are taken—the proportion of palatable forage species is much lower than in “fenced rangeland,” where access is limited and the stocking rate reduced to one third. Such integrated assessment of rangeland conditions ultimately provides the baseline for evaluating changes in ecosystems over time; it also provides a sound basis for negotiation among stakeholders with different interests."

Mountain Research and Development 2004, Volume 24, Issue 2, pp. 124–133

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Assessing health impacts of the Chad–Cameroon petroleum development and pipeline project

Challenges and a way forward

Jürg Utzinger, Doumagoum Moto Daugla, Yemadji N’Diékhor , Burton H. Singer, Marcel Tanner, Kaspar Wyss, 2004

"Health impact assessment (HIA) of projects, programmes and policies is increasingly recognized as a powerful methodology for mitigating negative health impacts and enhancing equitable and sustainable development, yet applications in the developing world are sparse. Here, we focus on a large infrastructure development in sub-Saharan Africa, namely the Chad–Cameroon petroleum development and pipeline project. We adapted a five-step process for HIA, consisting of (1) screening of project documents, (2) profiling of affected communities, (3) identifying priority health areas, predicting potential impacts, and proposing mitigation measures, (4) implementing interventions, and (5) monitoring and evaluation of health impacts. [...]"

Environmental Impact Assessment Review 2004, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 63-93

Available from: ScienceDirect

Estrategia de incidencia política. Apuntes para el fortalecimiento del desarrollo endógeno sostenible

Escobar Vasquez, 2009

Revista COMPAS de Desarrollo Endógeno 12

Globalisierung und Agrarproduktmärkte in Kerala

Das Beispiel Cashew und Kautschuk

René Véron, Urs Geiser, Balz Strasser, 2004

"Der mit Landwirtschaftsressourcen gut ausgestattete südindische Bundesstaat Kerala ist seit Jahrhunderten in den Weltmarkt eingebunden. Aber selbst in der heutigen Phase der Globalisierung und Liberalisierung weisen die Märkte für Keralas Agrarprodukte Merkmale auf, die nicht nur internationale Verhältnisse zwischen Angebot und Nachfrage widerspiegeln, sondern von zahlreichen sozialen und politischen Institutionen auf verschiedenen räumlichen Ebenen geprägt sind. Solche „real existierende globale Märkte“ werden im Beitrag am Beispiel von Cashew und Kautschuk besprochen."

Geographische Rundschau 2004, No. 11, pp. 18-24

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Perceptions and evaluations of biosphere reserves by local residents in Switzerland and Ukraine

Astrid Wallner, Nicole Bauer , Marcel Hunziker, 2007

Landscape and Urban Planning 83:104-114

Bedürfnisanalyse bei Schutzgebiets- und Parkprojektträgerschaften

Astrid Wallner, Albrecht Ehrensperger, Olivier Gardi, Kurt Gerber, Thomas Gurtner, Bruno Käufeler, Madlene Nussbaum, Ulla Schüpbach, 2008

Protection: A Means for Sustainable Development?

The Case of the Jungfrau-Aletsch-Bietschhorn World Heritage Site in Switzerland

Astrid Wallner, Karina Liechti, Stephan Rist, Urs Wiesmann, 2008

The Jungfrau-Aletsch-Bietschhorn World Heritage Site (WHS) comprises landscapes that are shaped by centuries of traditional agricultural use. Given the dramatic changes in the agricultural sector, the risk faced by cultural landscapes in the Region is possibly greater than that faced by the natural landscape inside the perimeter of the WHS. Maintaining the right balance between preservation of the WHS and promotion of sustainable regional development constitutes a key challenge for management of the WHS. This process made it possible to jointly define the present situation and thus create a basis for legitimising future action. From this participatory process, a link between the concepts of ‘protected area’ and sustainable development
in the region emerged.

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Tourismus als Schlüssel zur nachhaltigen Entwicklung in der Welterbe-Region Jungfrau-Aletsch-Bietschhorn (Schweiz).

Astrid Wallner, Beat Ruppen, Urs Wiesmann, 2008

In: Luger, Kurt & Wöhler, Karlheinz (eds). Welterbe und Tourismus. Schützen und Nützen aus einer Perspektive der Nachhaltigkeit. Reihe Tourismus: transkulturell und transdisziplinär. Innsbruck: Studien Verlag. pp. 197-216.

Stakeholders' role and interactions in context of forestry extension interventions in the Northwest Pakistan

Muhammad Arif Wattoo, Tanvir Ali, A. J. Khan, Babar Shahbaz, 2010

This paper reports the findings of a research project conducted in the forest districts viz. Mansehra, Abotabad and Haripur in the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan. The main objective of the study was to identify the interaction among main stakeholders at the local level – and analyze their extent of participation in decision-making in the context of three forest related extension projects.
Poor interaction between the forest department and local communities was perceived due to supremacy of the forest department in decision-making regarding forest management at local level. It was recommended that implementing should involve local communities simultaneously in decision-making and implementation process, local communities should work with implementing agencies to accelerate project activities and donor agencies should develop consensus among involved stakeholders before the implementation of a project.

Pakistan Journal of Agicultural Sciences 42(2): 173-177

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Use of NASA World Wind Java SDK for three-dimensional accessibility visualisation of remote areas in Lao P.D.R.

Adrian Weber, Andreas Heinimann, Peter Messerli, 2009

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Demographic and health surveillance of mobile pastoralists in Chad

Integration of biometric fingerprint identification into a geographical information system

Daniel Weibel, M.A. Abdoulaye, Bassirou Bonfoh, Jan Hattendorf, Toguina Madjiade, Esther Schelling, Jürg Utzinger, Jakob Zinsstag, 2008

Geospatial Health 3(1):113-124

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Bounded Spaces of Coexistence

Land Titling and Settlers on Indigenous Domains in Mindanao, the Philippines

Irina Wenk, 2005

Tsantsa 2005, 10: pp. 181-185

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Strengthening capacity for health research in Africa

James A. G. Whitworth, Samson Kinyanjui, Gilbert Kokwaro, Nelson Sewankambo, Valerie A. Snewin, Marcel Tanner, Mark Walport, 2008

Lancet 372:1590-1593

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Between Conservation and Development

Concretizing the First World Natural Heritage Site in the Alps Through Participatory Processes

Urs Wiesmann, Karina Liechti, Stephan Rist, 2005

This article presents an empirical interdisciplinary study of an extensive participatory process that was carried out in 2004 in the recently established World Natural Heritage Site "Jungfrau–Aletsch–Bietschhorn” in the Swiss Alps. The study used qualitative and quantitative empirical methods of social science to address the question of success factors in establishing and concretizing a World Heritage Site.

Mountain Research and Development 2005, Vol 25 No 2, pp. 128–138

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Comment renforcer la recherche transdisciplinaire: Une synthèse en quinze propositions

Urs Wiesmann, Susette Biber-Klemm, Walter Grossenbacher-Mansuy, Gertrude Hirsch Hadorn, Holger Hoffmann-Riem, Dominique Joye, Christian Pohl, Elisabeth Zemp, 2008

Le débat autour de la transdisciplinarité est relativement nouveau et la réflexion sur le processus de recherche transdisciplinaire est en cours de développement. Ce chapitre représente une tentative pour stimuler le débat sur la recherche transdisciplinaire et son développement. Avec les 15 propositions que nous présentons ici en qualité de directeurs de redaction du Handbook of Transdisciplinary Research (Manuel de la recherche transdisciplinaire), nous prenons d’abord position sur la définition, la portée et le processus de la recherché transdisciplinaire. Nous donnons ensuite des pistes de réflexion sur la manière d’aborder les obstacles les plus persistants à la pratique transdisciplinaire. Nous mettons finalement l’accent sur les éléments essentiels et nécessaires pour relever les défis scientifiques, institutionnels et sociaux de la transdisciplinarité.

In: Darbellay F, Paulsen T, editors. Le défi de l'inter- et transdisciplinarité. Lausanne: Presses polytechniques et universitaires romandes, pp 169-196.

La contribution des biens naturels du Patrimoine Mondial au développement régional durable: Deux études de cas dans le Nord et le Sud

Urs Wiesmann, Karina Liechti, 2004

Les sites naturels du Jungfrau-Aletsch-Bietschhorn et du Mont Kenya sont tous deux inscrits au Patrimoine Mondial de l'Unesco. Dans le cas de Grindelwald, le paysage culturel est plus menacé que le paysage naturel protégé du patrimoine mondial, alors que dans le cas du système des hautes et basses terres du Mont Kenya, l'important potentiel en ressources subit une forte pression anthropique. Dans les pays du Nord, où l'apport à une conscience régionale identitaire de la population peut revêtir une importance considérable, la contribution des biens naturels du patrimoine mondial au développement régional durable est probablement plus élevée en termes socioculturels. Dans les pays du Sud, le statut de patrimoine mondial peut assurer la protection des paysages naturels d'un point de vue écologique, mais les pertes potentielles encourues par la population en termes de production primaire ne sont compensées que de façon très limitée.

Revue de géographie alpine 92(3):73-83.

Mitigating Conflicts Over Scarce Water Resources in the Highland-lowland System of Mount Kenya

Urs Wiesmann, Francis N. Gichuki, Boniface Kiteme, Hanspeter Liniger, 2000

The Mount Kenya region offers a great deal of beautiful scenery and attracts tourists from all over the world. What these tourists may not see, however, is the crucial function of Mount Kenya as a water tower for its footzones and adjoining lowland areas. This function is becoming ever more crucial, as populations in these areas are growing at a rapid pace and new land use systems require far more water. These developments have set the stage for increasing conflicts over water resources; to make things worse, water is becoming ever scarcer, especially in the dry areas of the Laikipia Plateau and the Samburu Plains to the north and west of the mountain. This article summarizes the complex ecological and socioeconomic dynamics prevailing in the highland-Blowland system of Mount Kenya—the Ewaso Ng'iro North Basin—and presents a multilevel strategy for mitigating the emerging conflicts over water resources.

Mountain Research and Development 2000, 20(1), pp. 10-15.

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The Contributions of World Natural Heritage Sites to Sustainable Regional Development

Two Case Studies from the North to the South

Urs Wiesmann, Karina Liechti, 2004

Journal of Alpine Research 2004, Vol. 92, No. 3, pp. 84-94

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Transdisciplinary Research in Developmental Cooperation

Origins and Paradigms

Urs Wiesmann, Jeannine Brutschin, 2003

The Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS). Paris: UNESCO. www.eolss.net


Available from: EOLSS UNESCO

Transdisziplinäre Forschung weiterentwickeln: Eine Synthese mit 15 Empfehlungen

Urs Wiesmann, Susette Biber-Klemm, Walter Grossenbacher-Mansuy, Gertrude Hirsch Hadorn, Holger Hoffmann-Riem, Dominique Joye, Christian Pohl, Elisabeth Zemp, 2008

Die Diskussion rund um das Thema Transdisziplinarität ist noch relativ jung und der Prozess transdisziplinärer Forschung wird laufend weiterentwickelt. Das vorliegende Schlusskapitel des Handbook of Transdisciplinary Research (Handbuch der Transdisziplinären Forschung) ist ein Versuch, die Debatte über sowie die Weiterentwicklung der transdisziplinären Forschung anzuregen. Mit 15 Empfehlungen bezieht die Herausgeberschaft Stellung zur Definition, zum Anwendungsbereich und zum Prozess der transdisziplinären Forschung. Es werden Hinweise zur Bewältigung der wichtigsten Stolpersteine der transdisziplinären Forschungspraxis gegeben, und schliesslich die Eckpfeiler im Umgang mit den wissenschaftlichen, institutionellen und gesellschaftlichen Herausforderungen beleuchtet.

In: Darbellay F, Paulsen T, editors. Herausforderung Inter- und Transdisziplinarität. Lausanne: Presses polytechniques et universitaires romandes, pp 169-196.

Spatial assessment of erosion and its impact on soil fertility in the Tajik foothills

Bettina Wolfgramm, Mathias Kneubühler, Hanspeter Liniger, Bruno Seiler, 2007

"Efficient planning of soil conservation measures requires, first, to understand the impact of soil erosion on soil fertility with regard to local land cover classes; and second, to identify hot spots of soil erosion and bright spots of soil conservation in a spatially explicit manner. Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important indicator of soil fertility. The aim of this study was to conduct a spatial assessment of erosion and its impact on SOC for specific land cover classes. Input data consisted of extensive ground truth, a digital elevation model and Landsat 7 imagery from two different seasons. [...] The results show distinctly lower SOC content levels on large parts of the test areas, where annual crop cultivation was dominant in the 1990s and where cultivation has now been abandoned. On the other hand, there are strong indications that afforestations and fruit orchards established in the 1980s have been successful in conserving soil resources."

EARSeL eProceedings, Vol. 6, No.1, pp. 12-25

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Metropolization and the Ecological Crisis

Precarious settlements in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Sebastian Wust, Jean-Claude Bolay, Ngoc Du Thai Thi, 2002

"This paper describes two experiences with community-led upgrading programmes in precarious settlements in Ho Chi Minh City and discusses how and why these are more effective and appropriate than the city’s "redevelopment" and relocation programmes. Although rapid economic growth has meant improved material conditions for much of the city’s population, it has also had a negative impact on the environment and on the poorer groups whose living conditions are deteriorating, especially in the precarious settlements on vacant lots, along canals and on the city outskirts. The city has plentiful water, but large sections of the population are not reached by piped water and sewers. Although relocation programmes are better managed here than in most cities, many who are relocated suffer a drop in income, a steep rise in housing costs and a disruption to their social networks. The paper ends with some reflections on the changes needed in government attitudes towards citizens."

Environment and Urbanization 2002, Vol 14, No. 2, pp. 211-224

Available for purchase from: SAGE JOURNALS Online

An approach for classifying human resources constraints for achieving health related Millennium Development Goals

Kaspar Wyss, 2004

Human Resources for Health 2:11.

Comment combattre les inégalités en matière de santé?

Des enseignements à partir des activités de recherche et d’action en milieu nomade au Tchad

Kaspar Wyss, Mahamat Béchir, Esther Schelling, Marcel Tanner, Jakob Zinsstag, 2003

In: Schneider J, Roost Vischer L, Péclard P. editors. 2003.Werkschau Afrikastudien 4 - Le forum suisse des africanistes 4, Schweizerische Afrikastudien - Etudes africaines suisses. Münster, LIT Verlag, pp. 151-167

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Constraints to scaling-up health related interventions

The case of Chad, Central Africa

Kaspar Wyss, Bart Callewaer, Doumagoum Moto Daugla, 2003

"This analysis of constraints to scaling-up health-related interventions in Chad shows that emphasis has to be put on systemic approaches which address absorptive capacity, on removal of structural constraints, and on efficient and equitable production of health services. In the production of services the development of infrastructure must not exceed the development of human resources. If the millennium development goals are to be achieved, major investments in basic and in-service training and in management skills are crucially needed. In addition, the study shows the importance of promoting health services which actively seek to fulfil community demands and those of disadvantaged groups."

Journal of International Development 2003, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 87-100

Available from: Wiley InterScience

Costs attributable to AIDS at household level in Chad

Kaspar Wyss, G. Hutton, Yemadji N’Diékhor , 2004

"This paper assesses the economic costs of AIDS at the household level in Chad, one of the poorest countries in the world. One hundred and ninety-three AIDS patients living in four different regions were found by case identification at hospital level and through community based organizations providing psycho-social relief. They were matched by age, sex, professional category and zone of residence with controls. Costs were evaluated through a standard questionnaire. Costs at household level attributable to AIDS up to death were US$836 per case. Costs related to productivity losses made up 28% of total costs. More than half of total costs (56%) were health care related expenditures, and funeral costs contributed 16%. AIDS cases relied more often on borrowing and the selling of household assets than controls for treatment. Household expenditures of AIDS cases were much higher than control households mainly due to health related expenditure. The response of concerned families to HIV/AIDS implies high costs and for most households, especially in low-income settings, the consequences of AIDS are devastating. Innovative strategies on how best to assist households are thus requested and may include the strengthening of care and treatment services being offered to AIDS cases."

AIDS Care 2004, Vol. 16, No. 7, pp. 808-816

Available from: Informaworld

Finding the answers to Chad’s health workforce crisis

Kaspar Wyss, 2005

Massive shortages of qualified health workers are recognised by the Chad authorities to be a primary "bottleneck" for the development of the health sector. This paper shortly reviews policies implemented which prioritise human resource development and concludes that more choherent policies are needed, particularly to improve motivation and retention.

id21 insights health # 7: Responding to the health workforce crisis.

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Modelling of an influenza pandemic in Switzerland

Kaspar Wyss, J Costa, 2005

Report established by the Swiss Tropical Institute on behalf of the Swiss Federal Office for Public Health, Basel, 15 pages

Santé et vulnérabilité des populations défavorisées de l'Afrique de l'Ouest. Etudes de cas en Côte d'Ivoire, Mauritanie et au Tchad.

Kaspar Wyss, 2006

Les articles dans cet ouvrage collectif sont regroupés autour de trois piliers de la notion vulnérabilité : (1) la
monnayabilité/marchandisation (anglais «commoditization»), (2) les risques environnementaux («environmental hazards»), et (3) fragmentation sociale. À la suite de la présentation du cadre conceptuel emprunté par l’équipe de recherche, chacune des notions est reprise par une série d’articles. Enfin, le dernier chapitre établit une synthèse des différents chapitres précédents tout en élargissant la notion de vulnérabilité et son lien avec la
santé urbaine.

VertigO - la revue canadienne et électronique en sciences de l'environnement hors série 3: 1-2.

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Comparative Health Impact Assessments on Faecal Sludge Management Practices: A Case Study of Klong Luang Municipality, Thailand

Yajima, A. Yajima, A., 2005

Tha Klong sub district with indiscriminate FS dumping and Klong Luang municipality were selected. In order to determine health risks due to faecal management practices , the quantitiative Microbial risk Assessment (QMRA) was conducted by using microbial data of E.Coli and Salmonella spp. The result shows that estimated mean values of yearly infection risks from accidental ingestion of canal water in various scanario were higher than acceptable risk defined by WHO.

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Pressure-State-Response in Land Resource Changes, Lake Tana Basin, Ethiopia

Birru Yitaferu, Hans Hurni, 2008

Lake Tana Basin (LTB) is the uppermost part of the Blue Nile River Basin in Ethiopia. The 15,000 km2 headwater is a main water source of the Blue Nile and a place of ancient agriculture and human settlement. Understanding problems related to land resource changes requires detailed examination of the factors in a pressure-state response framework (see Birru Yitaferu 2007).

Poster presented at the International Conference on Research for Development (ICRD), National Centre of Competence in Research NCCR North-South, University of Bern. 02-04 July 2008, Bern.

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Water issues: the need for action at different levels

Alexander J.B. Zehnder, Roland Schertenleib, Hong Yang, 2003

"Fair fresh water distribution among humans and nature and among all sectors will be one of the main challenges of the 21st century. There is a complex interplay between the different water users, and clear systematics are needed for efficient decision making. Water uses can be divided into four sectors, (i) water for people, services and industries, (ii) water for agriculture, (iii) water for nature, and (iv) water for energy production. A number of water related issues are relevant for each sector, though not all with the same importance. The issues relate either to water quality, water quantity, (urban) water infrastructure and integrated water management, and socio-economics and institutional aspects. Depending on the sector and the issues, there is an appropriate level for actions. Responsibilities for providing water for people, services, and industries must be taken at the local level (communities, cities, districts). Water for nature and the provision of ecosystem services ask for a more regional, national, or even multinational decision-making structure. The demographic development of the coming 25 years will be a challenge for agriculture to satisfy the food needs of all humans. The adequate and just access to agricultural products needs to be internationally guaranteed. Decisions for all sectors and on all levels imply formidable economic challenges, which will accompany human societies for the next decennia."

Aquatic Sciences 2003, Vol. 65, No. 1, pp. 1-20

Available from: SpringerLink

The Tajik Pamirs: Energy: a precondition for development

Daniel Zibung, 2003

The Tajik Pamirs: Challenges of Sustainable Development in an Isolated Mountain Region: The present publication provides a summary of the outcomes of the Pamir Strategy Project (PSP). It portrays life in the Pamirs, along with development challenges and options, and presents practical and participatory approaches that can lead to sustainable mountain development. In addition, this publication outlines the lessons learnt within the PSP by presenting and evaluationg methods and apporaches such as participatory village studies, multi-level stakeholder workshops for strategy development, knowledge generation processes, and Geographic Information Systmes as decision support tools for sustainable mountain development.

In: Breu T, and Hurni H, editors. The Tajik Pamirs. Challenges of Sustainable Development in an Isolated Mountain Region. Bern: Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), University of Bern, pp 35-36.

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The Tajik Pamirs: Infrastructure

Daniel Zibung, 2003

The Tajik Pamirs: Challenges of Sustainable Development in an Isolated Mountain Region: The present publication provides a summary of the outcomes of the Pamir Strategy Project (PSP). It portrays life in the Pamirs, along with development challenges and options, and presents practical and participatory approaches that can lead to sustainable mountain development. In addition, this publication outlines the lessons learnt within the PSP by presenting and evaluationg methods and apporaches such as participatory village studies, multi-level stakeholder workshops for strategy development, knowledge generation processes, and Geographic Information Systmes as decision support tools for sustainable mountain development.

In: Breu T, and Hurni H, editors. The Tajik Pamirs. Challenges of Sustainable Development in an Isolated Mountain Region. Bern: Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), University of Bern, pp 26-27.

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A sociology of international research partnerships for sustainable development

Claudia Zingerli, A Uzeda, 2008

Summary of conference paper presented at 12th General Conference of the European Association of Development Research Institutes (EADI), Geneva, 24-28 June 2008.

In: NORRAG News 40:140-142

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On producing and sharing knowledge across boundaries: experiences from the interfaces of an international development research network

Claudia Zingerli, Claudia Michel, Annika Salmi, 2010

In: Knowledge Management for Development Journal 5(2):185—196. DOI: 10.1080/18716340903201538

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A model of animal-human brucellosis transmission in Mongolia

Jakob Zinsstag, G. Chimed-Ochir, J. Kolar, M. Nansalmaa, D. Orkhon, F. Roth, Penelope Vounatsou, 2005

"We developed a dynamic model of livestock-to-human brucellosis transmission in Mongolia. The compartmental model considers transmission within sheep and cattle populations and the transmission to humans as additive components. The model was fitted to demographic and seroprevalence data (Rose Bengal test) from livestock and annually reported new human brucellosis cases in Mongolia for 1991–1999 prior to the onset of a mass livestock-vaccination campaign (S19 Brucella abortus for cattle and Rev1 Brucella melitensis for sheep and goat). The vaccination effect was fitted to livestock- and human-brucellosis data from the first 3 years of the vaccination campaign (2000–2002). Parameters were optimized on the basis of the goodness-of-fit (assessed by the deviance). The simultaneously fitted sheep–human and cattle–human contact rates show that 90% of human brucellosis was small-ruminant derived. Average effective reproductive ratios for the year 1999 were 1.2 for sheep and 1.7 for cattle."

Preventive Veterinary Medicine 2005, Vol. 69, Issues 1-2, pp. 77-95

Available from: Science Direct

Animal Health Research

Editorial

Jakob Zinsstag, 2007

"Today's intimate and rapid global interconnections mean that uncontrolled infectious diseases in one part of the world threaten animal and public health everywhere. The good news is that animal health sciences are technologically better equipped than ever before for detecting new disease outbreaks almost in real time. The bad news is that despite this, there is a daunting gap in converting these advances into effective actions and policies, particularly in developing countries. What can be done to remedy this lack of cohesion? [...]" >>more

Science 2007, Vol. 315, No. 5816, p. 1193

Availabel from: Science Magazine

Livestock Diseases and Human Health

Editorial

Jakob Zinsstag, Mitchell G. Weiss, 2001

"Two decades ago, the U.S. epidemiologist Calvin Schwabe coined a phrase--"the one medicine"--to focus attention on the commonality of human and veterinary health interests.* The underlying concept is traceable to the late 19th century, in contributions of the German pathologist and architect of social medicine Rudolf Virchow. Recent events have brought the relationship between animal and human health into much sharper focus than even public health and veterinary health specialists might have predicted. [...]" >>more

Science 2001, Vol. 294. no. 5542, p. 477

Available from: Science Magazine

Potential of cooperation between human and animal health to strengthen health systems

Jakob Zinsstag, Mahamat Béchir, Esther Schelling, Kaspar Wyss, 2005

"The WHO ministerial summit held in Mexico City, Mexico, on Nov 16–20, 2004, recognised the pivotal role of strengthened health systems in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in an equity-effective manner. Its resolutions encourage health systems research to include broad societal dimensions. One extension involves closer interaction between human and animal health, for which the US epidemiologist Calvin Schwabe coined the term “one medicine”, to focus attention on the similarity between human and veterinary health interests. [...]"

The Lancet 2005, Vol. 366, Issue 9503, pp. 2142-2145

Available online from: The Lancet
Download PDF from: The Lancet

Serum Retinol of Chadian Nomadic Pastoralist Women in Relation to their Livestocks' Milk Retinol and beta-Carotene Content

Jakob Zinsstag, Saada Daoud, Doumagoum Moto Daugla, Colette Diguimbaye, Peter Hofmann, Lea Knopf, Guelmbaye Ndoutamia, Esther Schelling, Josef Schierle, Marcel Tanner, Penelope Vounatsou, 2002

Human serum retinol and livestock milk retinol levels were assessed as part of a study on the health status of Chadian nomadic pastoralists and their livestock in close partnership between Chadian public health and livestock institutions. Our study supports the use of goat and cow milk as an important source of vitamin A in pastoral nomadic settings. However, the levels still require to be complemented further by promoting green leafy vegetables, fruits, and supplements.

International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 2002, 72(4): 221-228

Available from: Verlag Hans Huber

Taux sérique de rétinol chez les femmes nomades pastoralistes tchadiennes en relation avec la teneur en rétinol et en carotène dans le lait de leur bétail

Jakob Zinsstag, Saada Daoud, Doumagoum Moto Daugla, Colette Diguimbaye, Peter Hofmann, Lea Knopf, Guelmbaye Ndoutamia, Esther Schelling, Josef Schierle, Marcel Tanner, Penelope Vounatsou, 2004

"Human serum retinol and livestock milk retinol levels were assessed as part of a study on the health status of Chadian nomadic pastoralists and their livestock in close partnership between Chadian public health and livestock institutions. Of the examined women (n = 99), 43% (95% CI 33 – 54 %) were retinol deficient (levels from 0.35 ?mol/L to 0.7 ?mol/L) and 17% (95% CI 10 - 26 %) severely deficient (<0.35 ?mol/L). None of the interviewed women (n=87) reported the consumption of fruit and only two of fresh vegetables in the past 24 hours. Thus, milk was the almost exclusive source of vitamin A for these populations. Goats (n=6) had the highest average milk retinol levels (329 ± 84 ?g/kg [mean ± SEM]), followed by cattle (n=25; 247 ± 32 ?g/kg), and camels (n=12; 120 ± 18 ?g/kg). Human serum retinol was significantly related to livestock milk retinol levels (partial slope 0.23; 95% confidence interval 0.008 – 0.47). Our study confirms that goat and cow milk are important sources of vitamin A in pastoral nomadic settings. However, the intake levels still require to be further complemented by promoting green leafy vegetables, fruits and vitamin supplements."

Médecine Tropicale 2004, Vol. 64, No. 5, pp. 478-481

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Towards a "one health" research and application tool box

Jakob Zinsstag, Bassirou Bonfoh, Anthony R Fooks, Joldoshbek Kasymbekov, Esther Schelling, Marcel Tanner, David Waltner-Toews, 2010

Veterinaria Italiana 45(1): 119-131

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Transmission dynamics and economics of rabies control in dogs and humans in an African city

Jakob Zinsstag, Salome Dürr, Jan Hattendorf, S Menendez Gonzalez, R. Mindekem, S Naissengar, Melissa A Penny, F. Roth, 2009

PNAS 106(35): 14996-15001.

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Decentralised Composting in Bangladesh

A win-win situation for all stakeholders

Christian Zurbruegg, Silke Drescher, Iftekhar Enayetullah, Isabelle Rytz, A.H.Md. Maqsood Sinha, 2005

"The paper describes experiences of Waste Concern, a research based Non-Governmental Organisation, with a community-based decentralised composting project in Mirpur, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The composting scheme started its activities in 1995 with the aim of developing a low-cost technique for composting of municipal solid waste, which is well-suited to Dhaka's waste stream, climate, and socio-economic conditions along with the development of public–private–community partnerships in solid waste management and creation of job opportunities for the urban poor. Organic waste is converted into compost using the “Indonesian Windrow Technique”, a non-mechanised aerobic and thermophile composting procedure. [...]"

Resources, Conservation and Recycling 2005, Volume 43, Issue 3, pp. 281-292

Available from: ScienceDirect

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