Implementing the Bellagio Principles in Urban Environmental Sanitation Services
Geographic Analysis of Livelihood Strategy in Jagritinagar Squatter Settlement, Kathmandu
Rajip Adhikari, 2009
The general objective of this study is to analyse the urban poverty issue from the livelihood and vulnerability perspective in Jagritinagar squatter settlement of Kathmandu Metropolitan City. The specific objectives are:
* to examine the socio-economic condition of the people of Jagritinagar squatter settlement
* to explore the types of livelihood means
* to assess the strategies adopted by the squatters
* to analyse the vulnerability context of the people in Jagritinagar squatter settlement
Abstract of Master Thesis at Tribhuvan University.
Klassenbewusste Einbunkerung für jeden was
Geschlossene Viertel in San Salvador
Sonia Baires, 2005
Los barrios cerrados en el AMSS: una nueva forma de segregación residencial en la era de la globalización
Revista ILA 2005, 288:XII-XIII
Violencia urbana y recuperación de espacios públicos. El caso del AMSS
Sonia Baires, 2004
In: V.V. Aportes para la convivencia y la seguridad ciudadana. UNDP. San Salvador C.A.
Potentials and Limitations of Existing Technical Alternatives on Waste and Wastewater Management in Cat Bi Ward, Haiphong City, Vietnam
Pham Ngoc Bao, 2006
Master's Thesis, Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand
"This study focus on investigation in details the potential and limitations of existing technical alternatives on human excreta and domestic wastewater management in Haiphong, with a case study in Cat Bi ward, where there is a huge potential for using of onsite and decentralised sanitations for human excreta and wastewater disposal and where people having high potential of willing to pay for wastewater and sanitation fee. SWOT analysis technique has been used in the evaluation process. [...]"
Intermediate cities in Latin America
Risk and opportunities of coherent urban development
Jean-Claude Bolay, Adriana Rabinovich, 2004
"Urban agglomerations continue to be defined primarily by spatial and demographic criteria which signal their position within the domestic and international urban networks. We consider that these criteria are overly static, and lack indicators of both the potential inherent in medium-sized cities, and the risks they are prone to. On the occasion of a research action project conducted jointly with the Urban Management Program for Latin America and the Caribbean (PGU–ALC/HABITAT), we attempted to gain a deeper understanding of medium-sized cities in order to see more clearly what varied relations they entertain with their immediate or more distant environment. [...]"
Cities 2004, Vol. 21, No. 5, pp. 407–421
Available from: Science Direct
Neo-liberal Arguments, Technology and Public Institutions
Pratiques urbaines et planification en Amérique Latine
Alternatives pour une gestion participative de l'habitat des pauvres en Bolivie
Jean-Claude Bolay, 2002
In: Dansereau F, Navez-Bouchanine F, editors. 2002. Gestion du développment urbain et stratégies résidentielles des habitants. Paris: L'Harmattan (Collection Villes et Entreprises)
Order from: L'Harmattan
Slums and Urban Development
Questions on Society and Globalisation
Jean-Claude Bolay, 2006
"The slum is not only a manifestation of mismanaged urban planning in the countries of the South. The existence of slums worldwide is also a sign that the slum is a crucial element of contemporary urbanisation. This article will attempt to define this phenomenon and understand its causes. Adequate policy responses are then suggested. Without finding appropriate solutions to the housing problems of a majority of urban dwellers, public and private decision makers will not be able to meet the challenges of sustainable development."
The European Journal of Development Research 2006, Vol. 18, Issue 2, pp 284-298
Available for purchase from: Informaworld
Rural Livelihoods, Their Links to Urban Centres, and the Roles of Woman and Young Adults. The example of Songwe Basin, Tanzania and Malawi
Manuela Born, Hannah Kästli, 2009
Master's thesis at University of Bern
"In the city, everybody only cares for himself"
Social relations and illness in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire
Rita Bossart, 2003
"Various studies on African solidarity, survival strategies and the 'therapy man agement group' [J. M. Janzen (1978) The Quest for Therapy in Lower Zaire, Berkeley, Los Angeles & London: University of California Press] have suggested that institutionalized relationships in the form of networks or groups afford an individual access to resources, also in case of illness. My study reconsiders these arguments in ethnographic research about everyday illness management. It focuses on a heterogeneous urban neighbourhood in Abidjan and analyses who offers help to whom, and what kind of help people offer to one another. The findings show that social networks play an important but at the same time restricted role in illness management. The main source of assistance in response to affliction is household members. Apart from emotional and moral support, relatives living outside the household and non-kin play only a minor role. The social network offers help only sporadically, and very often the sick person has to ask friends and family several times before she or he receives financial or practical support. The emphasis given to social networks in the existing literature is often overestimated, at least in the case of illness. These findings implicate the importance of strengthening informal and formal security systems, especially in an urban context of economic hardship and political insecurity."
Anthropology & Medicine 2003, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 343-359
Available from: Informaworld
Patrimonio urbano y vivienda social en el centro de Buenos Aires: nuevas perspectivas y conflictos
E Cañellas, V Colella, N Da Representaçao, 2008
In: Torti C, Piovani J, editors. Desafíos para el conocimiento social” Actas-CD-ROM. La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, ISBN:978-950-34-0514-7.
Los Mercados Públicos de la Ciudad de México
Anthropologie visuelle en Afrique urbaine : Guide méthodologiqueAnthropologie visuelle en Afrique urbaine : Guide méthodologique
Jerome Chenal, 2006
NCCR North-South Dialogue, Bern.
Quand l'image devient le matériau de la recherche. Guide méthodologique pour la mise en oeuvre d'une recherche urbaine
Jerome Chenal, 2006
NCCR North-South Dialogues: Berne
Solid–liquid separation of faecal sludge using drying beds in Ghana
Implications for nutrient recycling in urban agriculture
Olufunke Cofie, S. Agbottah, F. Awuha, H. Esseku, Doulaye Kone, Agnes Montangero, Martin Strauss, 2006
This study investigated the possibility of recycling nutrients in human excreta and municipal solid waste for use in agriculture. It reports on the use of drying beds in separating solid and liquid fractions of faecal sludge (FS) so that the solids can be co-composted and the organic matter and part of the nutrients captured for urban agriculture...
Water Research 2006, 40:1, pp. 75-82
Available Online from: Science Direct
De problemas y oportunidades: intermediación urbana fronteriza en República Dominicana
Aproximaciones críticas a los complejos urbanos transfronterizos
Haroldo Dilla, editor, 2008
Santo Domingo, Grupo de Estudios Multidisciplinarios Ciudades y Fronteras
Intercambio desigual y complejos urbanos binacionales en la frontera dominicana con Haití
Haroldo Dilla, 2004
"La frontera dominico-haitiana está marcada por profundas asimetrías y el predominio de una relación de intercambio desigual que supone la transferencia de valores desde Haití a República Dominicana. Las relaciones transfronterizas resumen esta contradictoria relación, pero al mismo tiempo constituyen la única forma de supervivencia para más de medio millón de haitianos que habitan la región. Este artículo discute la historia de esta relación y sus tendencias actuales, incluyendo la formación de regiones económicas y complejos urbanos binacionales. La debilidad de las políticas públicas de regulación y la agresiva acción de los actores del mercado generan un escenario muy contradictorio que pudiera conducir a conflictos por el uso de los recursos compartidos, la explotación de la fuerza de trabajo haitiana y la agitación de posiciones nacionalistas."
"The Dominican/Haitian border is signed by profound asymmetries and the predominance of a relation of uneven exchange in benefit of Dominican Republic. Transborder relations summary this contradictory relation, but at the same time constitute the only form of survival for more than half million of Haitians that inhabit the region. This article discusses the history of this relation and its present tendencies, including the formation of economic regions and urban binational systems. The weakness of regulatory public policies and the aggressive action of the market generate a very contradictory setting that could lead to conflicts by the use of shared natural resources, the exploitation of the Haitian labour force, and the agitation of nationalist positions."
Revista Estudios Fronterizos 2004, Vol. 5, No. 9, pp. 35-58
Download from: Revista Estudios Fronterizos
Urban Borderland Intermediation in the Dominican Republic
Analyse de la situation de l’environnement sanitaire des quartiers défavorisés dans le tissu urbain de Yopougon a Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire
Kouassi Dongo, Jean Biémi , Guéladio Cissé, Fernand Koffi Kouamé, Brama Koné, Marcel Tanner, 2009
The integration into a Geographical information system (GIS) of multi-source data from QUICKBIRD imagery, ancilliary data and the results from socio-environmental investigations alowed to analyse the sanitary environment of 6 precarious settlements located along an open and exposed drainage channel, in Yopougon (Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire). The observatory of the sanitary environment of these deprivileged areas were conducted through analysis and mapping of main factors influencing the life quality of the populations. The spatial sharpness of QUICKBIRD imagery contributed to update the land use/land cover map. Analysis of various factors witch characterise the sanitary environment reveals many insufficiences as regards the management of the sanitation system of the settlements, thus exposing the populations to illness related to sanitation like malaria and diarrhoea. The findings will permit planing appropriate measurements to overcome sanitation problems in these précarious areas.
In: VertigO – La revue en sciences de l'environnement 8(3).
Improving urban drainage in Abidjan Côte d’Ivoire
Kouassi Dongo, Jean Biémi , Guéladio Cissé, David Dumoulin, Marcel Tanner, 2007
Tropical humid climates of sub-Saharan Africa with a high level of variability build a challenge for hygienic models used in urban drainage. Based on a probabilistic and stochastic approach,this work optimised and designed models which best simulate tropical downpours and improved calculations related to urban drainage in Abidjan and in other urban settings with similar climatic conditions.
In: African Journal of Science and Technology. Science and Engineering Series Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 8 - 16.
Optimizing Montana’s model to permit urban drainage in humid tropical environment: the case of Abidjan (Côte d’Ivoire)
Kouassi Dongo, Jean Biémi , Guéladio Cissé, Métangbo Diomandé, Marcel Tanner, 2005
In sub-Saharan Africa, the "hygienic" model used in urban drainage is faced with constraints in humid tropical environment, subjected to a high level of climatic variability. In Côte d’Ivoire adapting Montana's rain model is not satisfactory for certain time slots whereas this model includes the Caquot's rate-of-flow model used in urban
drainage. This work aims at optimizing and designing models which best simulate tropical downpours and help in calculations relating to urban drainage in Abidjan and elsewhere.
In: 10th International Conference on Urban Drainage, Copenhagen/Denmark, 21-26 August 2005.
The deterioration of a deprived urban community
Yopougan (Abidjan): a study of the influence of physical conditions and deficiencies in liquid and solid waste management systems [in French]
Kouassi Dongo, 2006
PhD Thesis, Université de Cocody, Côte d'Ivoire
For further information please contact the author
Urban agriculture and Anopheles habitats in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Stefan Dongus, Marcia C de Castro, Axel W. Drescher, Ulrike Fillinger, Laura Gosoniu, Khadija Kannady, Gerry F. Killeen, Hassan Mshinda, Deo Mtasiwa, Dickson Nyika, Marcel Tanner, 2009
A survey of agricultural areas combined with routinely monitored mosquito larval information was conducted in urban Dar es Salaam to investigate how agricultural and geographical features may influence the presence of Anopholes larvae.
Dongus S et al. 2009. Urban agriculture and Anopholes habitats in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Geospatial Health 3(2):189-210.
Urban agriculture and operational mosquito larvae control: mitigating malaria risk in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Stefan Dongus, 2009
This study describes how simple participatory mapping, GIS and remote sensing applications can enable successful urban malaria control.
Dongus S. 2009. Urban agriculture and operational mosquito larvae control: mitigating malaria risk in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. PhD thesis. University of Basel.
Social dynamics and fertility management in deprived urban areas [in French]
Mohamed Doumbia, 2006
PhD Thesis, Université de Cocody, Côte d'Ivoire
For further information please contact the author
Dynamics and sustainability of urban agriculture: examples from sub-Saharan Africa
Pay Drechsel, Stefan Dongus, 2010
Sustainability Science 5(1):69-78.
The post-conflict Trojan horse: Upsurge of urban crimes as a challenge to state building
Safal Ghimire, Bishnu Raj Upreti, 2010
In: Upreti BR, Sharma SR, Pyakuryal KN, Ghimire S. (eds). The Remake of a State: Post-conflict Challenges and State Building in Nepal. Kathmandu, South Asia Regional Coordination Office of the Swiss National Centere of Competence in Research (NCCR North-South) and Human and Natural Ressources Studies Centre (HNRSC), pp. 211-239.
The discussion in this chapter assesses, interprets and analyses the syndromes of urban crime as one of the post-conflict challenges for state building. It eyes upon the issues of crime from the angle of post-conflict security. The chapter gives attention to the increasing bureau-political tensions, and by the use of delineating the functions and malfunctions of police administration also to the loopholes to be corrected as well as the strengths to be accelerated.
Fäkalschlammbehandlung in den Tropen am Beispiel von Vererdungsbeeten
Udo Heinss, Thammarat Koottatep, Agnes Montangero, Martin Strauss, 2003
"Ein großer Anteil der in tropischen Großstädten eingesammelten Fäkalschlämme gelangt unbehandelt in die Umwelt. Daher ist es notwendig, neben angepassten Schlammbehandlungsverfahren auch Fäkalschlammmanagement-Konzepte zu entwickeln. Eine mögliche Behandlungsoption, die Schlammvererdung in bepflanzten Trockenbeeten, konnte erfolgreich in Bangkok getestet werden. Dabei wurde eine hohe optimale Feststoffbeladung von 250 kg TS/m2 d gefunden."
KA- Abwasser, Abfall 2003, Vol. 50, No. 9, pp. 1162-1167
La gouvernance urbaine, du Nord au Sud
A Discrete-Event Dynamic Systems Approach for Environmental Decision-Support
Dong-Bin Huang, 2006
PhD Thesis, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Switzerland
In his thesis, Dong-Bin Huang developed an event-based dynamic material flow and life-cycle-inventory modeling method and applied it in the urban area of Kunming (China) for urban water resource planning and pollution control of Dianchi Lake.
New solutions required for urban water management in Kunming City
Dong-Bin Huang, Hans-Peter Bader, Willi Gujer, Ruth Scheidegger, Roland Schertenleib, 2006
"Despite continuous investment and various efforts to control pollution, urban water environments are worsening in large parts of the developing world. In order to reveal potential constraints and limitations of current practices of urban water management and to stimulate proactive intervention, we conducted a material flow analysis of the urban water system in Kunming City. The results demonstrate that the current efficiency of wastewater treatment is only around 25% and the emission of total phosphorous from the city into its receiving water, Dianchi Lake, is more than 25 times higher than its estimated tolerance. With regard to the crisis of water quantity and quality, the goal of a sustainable urban water environment cannot be attained with the current problem-solving approach in the region due to the technical limitations of the conventional urban drainage and treatment systems. A set of strategies is therefore proposed. The urban drainage system in Zurich is used as a reference for a potential best-available technology for conventional urban water management (BAT) scenario in terms of its low combined frequency of sewer overflow."
Journal of Environmental Management, online since July 2006
Available online from: ScienceDirect
Discrete Event Simulation for Exploring Strategies
An Urban Water Management Case
Dong-Bin Huang, Derek E. Chitwood, Willi Gujer, Peter Loukopoulos, Roland Schertenleib, Roland W. Scholz, Hansruedi Siegrist, 2007
"This paper presents a model structure aimed at offering an overview of the various elements of a strategy and exploring their multidimensional effects through time in an efficient way. It treats a strategy as a set of discrete events planned to achieve a certain strategic goal and develops a new form of causal networks as an interfacing component between decision makers and environment models, e.g., life cycle inventory and material flow models. The causal network receives a strategic plan as input in a discrete manner and then outputs the updated parameter sets to the subsequent environmental models. Accordingly, the potential dynamic evolution of environmental systems caused by various strategies can be stepwise simulated. It enables a way to incorporate discontinuous change in models for environmental strategy analysis, and enhances the interpretability and extendibility of a complex model by its cellular constructs. It is exemplified using an urban water management case in Kunming, a major city in Southwest China. By utilizing the presented method, the case study modeled the cross-scale interdependencies of the urban drainage system and regional water balance systems, and evaluated the effectiveness of various strategies for improving the situation of Dianchi Lake."
Environmental Science & Technology 2007, Vol. 41, Issue 3, pp. 915-921
Available for purchase from: ACS Publications
The Challenge of Faecal Sludge Management in Urban Areas
Strategies, Regulations and Treatment Options
A.M. Ingallinella, Thammarat Koottatep, Agnes Montangero, Graciela Sanguinetti, Martin Strauss, 2002
In urban centres of industrialising countries, the majority of houses are served by on-site sanitation systems such as septic tanks and unsewered toilets. The faecal sludges (FS) collected from these systems are usually discharged untreated into the urban and peri-urban environment, posing great risks to water resources and to public health. Contrary to wastewater management, the development of strategies to cope with faecal sludges, adapted to the conditions prevailing in developing countries, have long been neglected. The authors describe the current situation and discuss selected issues of FS management. A proposal is made for a rational setting of sludge quality or treatment standards in economically emerging countries [...].
Water Science and Technology 2002, Vol. 46, No. 10, pp. 285-294.
Available for purchase from: IWA Publishing
Accroissement des connaissances des acteurs et décideurs sur les risques sanitaires liés aux déchets (solides et liquides) en milieu urbain et sur les stratégies de prévention.
Kientga, Mathieu Kientga, Mathieu, 2006
Impact de la démoustication sur les populations d’Aedes aegypti de deux communes de la ville d’Abidjan (Port-Bouët et Yopougon), Côte d'Ivoire
Atioumouna Kone, P. Carnevale, N. S. Dagnan, J. Tagliante-Saracino, I. Tiembré, 2005
Devant les résultats nous pouvons conclure que les pulvérisation aériennes spatiales d'insecticides permettent de réduire les densités de moustique en général et d'Aedes aegypti en particulier mais que cette réduction est de courte durée. Cette réduction est beaucoup plus marquée sur les populations exophagues que d'endophagues d'où la nécessité de tenir compte de la bio écologie des moustiques lors de l'application de cette technique.
Dakar Médical 2005, Vol. 50, No. 3, pp. 113-117
Urban agricultural land use and characterization of mosquito larval habitats in a medium-sized town of Côte d’Ivoire
Barbara Matthys, Guéladio Cissé, Moussa Koné, Benjamin G. Koudou, Eliézer K. N'Goran, Marcel Tanner, Andres Tschannen, Jürg Utzinger, Penelope Vounatsou, 2006
"Urban agriculture is common across Africa and contributes to the livelihoods of urban dwellers. Some crop systems create suitable mosquito breeding sites and thus might affect malaria transmission. The purpose of this study was to identify, map, and characterize potential mosquito breeding sites in agricultural land use zones in a medium-sized town of western Côte d’Ivoire and to assess risk factors for productive Anopheles breeding sites. Two surveys were carried out; one toward the end of the rainy season and the second one during the dry season. [...] The highest Anopheles larval productivity was observed in rice paddies, agricultural trenches between vegetable patches, and irrigation wells. An indirect link could be established between the occurrence of productive Anopheles breeding sites and agricultural land use through specific man-made habitats, in particular agricultural trenches, irrigation wells, and rice paddies. Our findings have important bearings for the epidemiology and control of urban malaria in sub-Saharan Africa."
Journal of Vector Ecology 2006, 31 (2), pp. 319-333
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Urban farming and malaria risk factors in a medium-sized town of Côte d’Ivoire
Barbara Matthys, Guéladio Cissé, Emmanuel Gbede Becket, Laura Gosoniu, Eliézer K. N'Goran, Giovanna Raso, Marcel Tanner, Andres Tschannen, Jürg Utzinger, Penelope Vounatsou, 2006
"Urbanization occurs at a rapid pace across Africa and Asia and affects people’s health and well-being. A typical feature in urban settings of Africa is the maintenance of traditional livelihoods, including agriculture. The purpose of this study was to investigate malaria risk factors in urban farming communities in a medium-sized town in Côte d’Ivoire. Two cross-sectional surveys were carried out among 112 households from six agricultural zones. [...] Our findings indicate that specific crop systems and specific agricultural practices may increase the risk of malaria in urban settings of tropical Africa."
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2006, 75(6), pp. 1223-1231
Available for purchase from: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Incorporating Children in Urban Residential Design and Planning in Selected Residential Estates in Nairobi
T. Mbatia, 2006
Identifying the Institutional Decision Process to Introduce Decentralized Sanitation in the City of Kunming (China)
Edi Medilanski, Liang Chuan, Tove Larsen, Hans-Joachim Mosler, Roland Schertenleib, 2007
"We conducted a study of the institutional barriers to introducing urine source separation in the urban area of Kunming, China. On the basis of a stakeholder analysis, we constructed stakeholder diagrams showing the relative importance of decision-making power and (positive) interest in the topic. A hypothetical decision-making process for the urban case was derived based on a successful pilot project in a periurban area. All our results were evaluated by the stakeholders. We concluded that although a number of primary stakeholders have a large interest in testing urine source separation also in an urban context, most of the key stakeholders would be reluctant to this idea. However, the success in the periurban area showed that even a single, well-received pilot project can trigger the process of broad dissemination of new technologies. Whereas the institutional setting for such a pilot project is favorable in Kunming, a major challenge will be to adapt the technology to the demands of an urban population. Methodologically, we developed an approach to corroborate a stakeholder analysis with the perception of the stakeholders themselves. This is important not only in order to validate the analysis but also to bridge the theoretical gap between stakeholder analysis and stakeholder involvement. We also show that in disagreement with the assumption of most policy theories, local stakeholders consider informal decision pathways to be of great importance in actual policy-making."
Environmental Management 2007, Vol. 39, No. 5, pp. 648-662
Available from: SpringerLink
Vulnérabilité et résilience des métropoles
Local Urban Observatory for Nakuru Municipality, Kenya
NCCR North-South, 2004
The Nakuru Local Urban Observatory Project aims at providing a framework for sustainable urban planning and management practices through building technical skills and improving participation of the various local stakeholders. To achieve this goal, a Local Urban Observatory (LUO) was created to stimulate the development of municipal spatial and environmental planning and management practices, informed by accurate, timely and accessible information.
Available for download: click here
Pensar y construir la ciudad moderna. Planes y proyectos para Buenos Aires
Engaging anthropology in urban health research
Issues and prospects
Brigit Obrist, Trudy Harpham, Marcel Tanner, 2003
"Urbanisation remains a challenge in the new millennium and will continue to have important implications for human health. This leads to lively debates in the field of international health, but with minimal engagement of anthropology. To stimulate active involvement, our paper highlights main issues addressed in this special issue and maps directions for future research. Our collection of papers addresses hot topics in urban health research, ranging from everyday health practice to mental health, chronic and degenerative illness, old age and social safety networks, and examines them from a complementary, anthropological perspective. Most priority concerns refer to four core issues commonly considered as characteris tics of urban life, namely, levels of environmental hazards, commodification, social fragmen tation and health service provision. We thus advocate for fresh perspectives, moving from a medical anthropology to a health anthropology, and from risk approaches to frameworks centring on affliction, vulnerability and resilience. Future research should concentrate on comparisons and longitudinal design to sharpen key distinctions, e.g. between rural, peri-urban and urban, use dynamics, diversity and complexity as analytical frameworks and investigate emerging issues like trust and care. With an active engagement in and commitment to urban health research, anthropology can enhance conceptual clarity and contribute to locally relevant public health actions."
Anthropology & Medicine 2003, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 361-371
Available from: informaworld
Health anthropology and urban health research
Brigit Obrist, Peter Van Eeuwijk, Mitchell G. Weiss, 2003
"We live in a rapidly urbanising world. According to the 2001 statistics of the United Nations, the proportion of urban dwellers rose from 30% in 1950 to 47% in 2000 and will probably attain 60% in 2030. Almost 70% of these urban dwellers live in cities of developing regions. At the current rates of urbanisation, the number of city dwellers in the world will equal that of their rural counterparts by 2007. In the late 1980s, researchers became increasingly concerned about the combined impact of rapid urban growth and economic recession on the health of a majority of people in African and Asian cities. Several books established urban health research with a focus on developing countries as a multidisciplinary field of inquiry (Harpham et al., 1988; Salem & Jeannée, 1989). It is now widely recognised that urbanisation per se is not necessarily bad for health, but it becomes so if urban governments fail to establish and support necessary infrastructure and services to protect citizens from environmental hazards and from social, economic and political insecurity."
Anthropology & Medicine 2003, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 267-274
Available from: informaworld
Interconnected Slums: Water, Sanitation and Health in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire
Brigit Obrist, Guéladio Cissé, Kouassi Dongo, Stefanie Granado, Brama Koné, Marcel Tanner, 2006
Current debates about slums centre on the growing inequality brought about by economic globalisation. Within this context, slums are typically viewed as bounded units within the city emphasising differentiation with other neighbourhoods. This paper questions whether a focus exclusively on slums is useful for the examination of the provision of water, sanitation and health in African cities and suggests a complementary perspective emphasising urban interconnectedness. Using a comparative case study approach, it examines responses to environmental conditions in urban as well as rural contexts along drainage channels in Abidjan, West Africa. The paper traces linkages on various and partly interrelated analytical levels: spatial, material, social, political, local, national and international. Such an analysis of multi-level dynamics between stakeholders contributes to a better understanding of slums as a phenomenon of urbanisation.
The European Journal of Development Research 2006, Vol. 18, Issue 2, pp 319-336
Ohne Sauberkeit keine Gesundheit. Hygiene im Alltag von Dar es Salaam, Tansania
Brigit Obrist, 2002
«Gesundheit» ist ein Zauberwort der Moderne. Es ist ein positives Konzept, das wir mit vielen Bereichen des alltäglichen Lebens in Beziehung setzen, von Umwelt über Ernährung bis hin zu Arbeit , Freizeit und sozialen Beziehungen. Was bedeutet «Gesundheit» jedoch für Menschen, die in einer ganz anderen Umgebung leben, nämlich einer schnell wachsenden afrikanischen Stadt?
Tsantsa 2002, 7: 66-76
An anthropological inquiry of health, vulnerability and resilience in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Brigit Obrist, 2006
Bern, Peter Lang Publishing Group
Table of Contents available for download
Urban health in daily practice
Livelihood, vulnerability and resilience in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Brigit Obrist, 2003
"Health is the core value and ultimate goal of health development, yet we know very little about health conceptions in everyday life. Inspired by investigations into lay health concepts in Europe, our study explores experiences and meanings of health in a strikingly different context, namely, in a low-income neighbourhood of an African city. Grounded in ethnographic research in Dar es Salaam, we introduce the concept of 'health practice' and examine health definitions, explanations, and activities of urban Swahili women. Our findings show that representations of health form a set of experiences, meanings and embodied practice centring on the links between body, mind, and living conditions. We suggest that 'livelihood', 'vulnerability' and 'resilience' best capture women's main concerns of health practice in such a setting. All women face an emotional burden of being exposed to urban afflictions and an intellectual and practical burden of overcoming them, but some meet this challenge more successfully than others do. This approach tips the balance towards a positive view of health that has been neglected in medical anthropology. It also opens new lines of inquiry in urban health research by consequently following a resource orientation that acknowledges women's struggle to stay healthy and directs attention to their agency."
Anthropology & Medicine 2003, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 275-290
Available from: informaworld
Le désert existe aussi dans la ville
Regard sur la lutte contre la maladie chez des populations défavorisées en milieu périurbain de Nouakchott (Mauritanie)
Moustapha Ould Taleb, Guéladio Cissé, Séraphin Essane, Baïdy Lô, Brigit Obrist, Esther Schelling, Kaspar Wyss, Jakob Zinsstag, 2006
"Ce travail porte sur la perception des déterminants de la vulnérabilité à la maladie et la gestion des problèmes de santé qui surviennent dans les ménages au niveau des populations d'origine nomade en milieu urbain défavorisé à Nouakchott. La méthodologie utilisée est qualitative basée sur des entretiens approfondis et l'observation participante. La perception de la santé est largement rapportée à la mauvaise qualité de l'habitat et au manque de moyens financiers pour l'accès aux services de santé. Les maladies les plus citées sont le paludisme, les problèmes gastriques et les maladies pédiatriques. Les épisodes de maladie sont gérés grâce à l'appui du réseau familial ou tribal qui se manifeste à travers la ''loha'', la solidarité du groupe de parenté. Il y a un besoin de stratégies de développement adaptées pour assurer l'intégration de ces populations spécifiques dans le tissu urbain à travers (1) l'implantation de services sociaux d'éducation et de santé, (2) le financement de microprojets pour combattre le chômage et (3) l'appui en formation pour les coopératives."
VertigO - la revue électronique en sciences de l'environnement 2006, hors série 3, Article 4
Download PDF from: VertigO
Caracas Terminal: enfants de la rue, nomades et sans-papiers
La sociologie urbaine de Paul-Henry Chombart de Lauwe
Une pensée en action dans le Sud
Yves Pedrazzini, 2000
"Paul-Henry Chombart de Lauwe est connu en France et ailleurs en Europe pour avoir été un pionnier de l'anthropologie appliquée dans les années 30, puis, après-guerre, pour avoir participé à " l'invention " de la sociologie urbaine. Mais un autre aspect de ses travaux est valorisé dans les pays du Sud, notamment en Amérique Latine : c'est là qu'il a su inaugurer un champ d'études avec des chercheurs de terrain particulièrement engagés dans la transformation culturelle de leur société ; c'est également dans le Sud qu'il a énoncé les principes de la "recherche-action", dont l'élément central est la participation des habitants aux projets, qu'ils soient riches ou pauvres. C'est ainsi que l'on peut dire qu'il n'est pas étranger à l'actuelle reconnaissance de la culture des quartiers, cités, barrios ou favelas."
Espaces et Sociétés 2000, No. 103, pp. 97-111
Available from: Espaces et Sociétés
Preservation of Modern Architecture: The neglected heritage of modern architecture and why it needs to be preserved
Yongtanit Pimonsathean, 2008
In: Keeping Up Modern Thai Architecture. Bangkok: Thailand Creative & Design Center, pp 80-85.
Livelihood Options of Internally Displaced Girls in Kathmandu and Nepalgunj: Analyzing Risks and Vulnerabilities
Sulava Piya, 2010
The present qualitative study focuses on the livelihood strategies of young displaced girls in two urban centers of Nepal, Kathmandu and Nepalgunj. The study attempted to highlight the livelihood options and strategies of those girls who had been forcefully displaced to urban centers. The attempt was also made to analyze the livelihoods of the girls with the use of two renowned frameworks - DFID's Sustainable Livelihood Framework and Rural Livelihood Strategies.
Abstract of Master Thesis at Kathmandu University.
The project process in Havana: A space for pedagogical innovation
An Urban Monitor as support for a participative management of developing cities
Alexandre Repetti, R. Prélaz-Droux, 2003
"Urban management is a complex process, which requires a sizeable information base and a large coordination between the actors who are managing the city. In developing countries, this management is made even more difficult by a lack of financial means and technical skills. For this reason among others, the classical instruments for planning are inefficient. Starting from this fact, this paper proposes a participative planning and management tool, developed through a concrete case study: the city of Thiès, in Senegal.
Participation, individual capacities and coordination have been identified as key factors for improving the efficiency of the system of actors in charge of the urban management. Therefore, the proposed method focuses on information, communication and training. In parallel, an Urban Monitor (participative system of geographical information and indicators) has been developed and implemented, for an improvement of the information and communication structuring.
This original approach allows combining the concepts of Research Action Training with participative methods and the new information and communication technologies. Based on a dynamic and geographical view of the urban planning, it integrates tools adapted to the contextual specificities. Through these original aspects, it opens great perspectives in the fields of participative urban management and the implementation of good governance."
Habitat International 2003, Vol. 27, No. 4, pp. 653-667
Available from: ScienceDirect
Planificando el desarrollo municipal con enfoque de gestion del riesgo
L.A. Salamanca, 2008
Instrumento técnico en el que se formulan criterios metodologicos para transversalizar la gestion del riesgo de desastre en la planificacion municipal. (Documento II de un conjunto de tres publicaciones sobres la tematica.)
An Integrated Approach to Environmental Sanitation and Urban Agriculture
Roland Schertenleib, Hasan Belevi, Dionys Forster, 2004
"Environmental sanitation comprises disposal and treatment of human excreta, solid waste and wastewater, control of disease vectors, and provision of washing facilities for personal and domestic hygiene. The conventional approach to environmental sanitation is characterised by a linear waste management system, where valuable plant nutrients are often not only wasted, but also create pollution problems in receiving waters. Closing the nutrient loop is one of the main objectives of a more ecological approach to environmental sanitation. Reuse of wastewater and organic waste in urban agriculture may contribute to closing this nutrient loop. In addition to food security and income generation, urban agricultural activities can thus help to improve public health and resource management. However, some urban agricultural processes, such as “agricultural practices”, “soil quality management” and “irrigation”, still requires further research."
ISHS Acta Horticulturae 2004, No. 643: International Conference on Urban Horticulture
Available from: ISHS Acta Horticulturae
From conventional to advanced environmental sanitation
Roland Schertenleib, 2005
"The basic concept of collecting domestic liquid waste in water-borne sewer systems goes back more than 100 years and became in the last century the conventional approach to sanitation in urban areas. Over the years, these sewage disposal systems had to be successively upgraded by additional sewage treatment plants increasing investment, operating and maintenance costs. Although these conventional sanitation systems could improve significantly the public health situation in those countries who could afford to install and operate them, it is highly questionable, if they are economically and ecologically sustainable. The large number of people in the developing world who still do not have access to adequate sanitation is a clear indication that the conventional approach to sanitation is not adapted to the socio-economic condition prevailing in most countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Advanced environmental sanitation is aiming not only to protect public health and the integrity of aquatic ecosystems but also to conserve precious freshwater and non-renewable resources. The Bellagio Principles and the Household Centred Environmental Sanitation Approach (HCES) are suggested as guiding principles and a new approach for planing and designing advanced (sustainable) environmental sanitation systems."
Water Science & Technology 2005, Vol. 51, No. 10, pp. 7–14
Available from: IWA Publishing Online
Improvement of Urban Environmental Sanitation Services (UESS) in Ban Hatsady Tai, Vientiane City, Lao PDR
Saykham Thammanosouth, T. Chanthala, M. Duannouluck, Antoine Morel, 2008
The paper aims at introducing the HCES planning approach and its underpinning principles, and illustrates the strengths and limitations of its application in Ban Hatsady Tai.
Metropolization and the Ecological Crisis
Precarious settlements in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Sebastian Wust, Jean-Claude Bolay, Ngoc Du Thai Thi, 2002
"This paper describes two experiences with community-led upgrading programmes in precarious settlements in Ho Chi Minh City and discusses how and why these are more effective and appropriate than the city’s "redevelopment" and relocation programmes. Although rapid economic growth has meant improved material conditions for much of the city’s population, it has also had a negative impact on the environment and on the poorer groups whose living conditions are deteriorating, especially in the precarious settlements on vacant lots, along canals and on the city outskirts. The city has plentiful water, but large sections of the population are not reached by piped water and sewers. Although relocation programmes are better managed here than in most cities, many who are relocated suffer a drop in income, a steep rise in housing costs and a disruption to their social networks. The paper ends with some reflections on the changes needed in government attitudes towards citizens."
Environment and Urbanization 2002, Vol 14, No. 2, pp. 211-224
Available for purchase from: SAGE JOURNALS Online
Water issues: the need for action at different levels
Alexander J.B. Zehnder, Roland Schertenleib, Hong Yang, 2003
"Fair fresh water distribution among humans and nature and among all sectors will be one of the main challenges of the 21st century. There is a complex interplay between the different water users, and clear systematics are needed for efficient decision making. Water uses can be divided into four sectors, (i) water for people, services and industries, (ii) water for agriculture, (iii) water for nature, and (iv) water for energy production. A number of water related issues are relevant for each sector, though not all with the same importance. The issues relate either to water quality, water quantity, (urban) water infrastructure and integrated water management, and socio-economics and institutional aspects. Depending on the sector and the issues, there is an appropriate level for actions. Responsibilities for providing water for people, services, and industries must be taken at the local level (communities, cities, districts). Water for nature and the provision of ecosystem services ask for a more regional, national, or even multinational decision-making structure. The demographic development of the coming 25 years will be a challenge for agriculture to satisfy the food needs of all humans. The adequate and just access to agricultural products needs to be internationally guaranteed. Decisions for all sectors and on all levels imply formidable economic challenges, which will accompany human societies for the next decennia."
Aquatic Sciences 2003, Vol. 65, No. 1, pp. 1-20
Available from: SpringerLink
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