German edition of Eawag News on material flows in foreign lands. An accounting method for the analysis of flows of ecologically significant materials and resources is increasingly being used by Eawag to assess acute environmental problems in developing and emerging countries. The German edition of Eawag News reports on projects carried out in Bangladesh, Eritrea, Congo/Rwanda, Cuba, Thailand and Vietnam.
Potentials and Limitations of Existing Technical Alternatives on Waste and Wastewater Management in Cat Bi Ward, Haiphong City, Vietnam
Pham Ngoc Bao, 2006
Master's Thesis, Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand
"This study focus on investigation in details the potential and limitations of existing technical alternatives on human excreta and domestic wastewater management in Haiphong, with a case study in Cat Bi ward, where there is a huge potential for using of onsite and decentralised sanitations for human excreta and wastewater disposal and where people having high potential of willing to pay for wastewater and sanitation fee. SWOT analysis technique has been used in the evaluation process. [...]"
Water Quality Assessment and Analysis in the Tha Chin River Basin, Thailand
Franziska Bieri, 2005
The thesis investigates into the relation between river water quality, land-use and nutrient pollution processes in Tha Chin River Basin, and aims at obtaining a spatial and temporal overview on water quality. The results allow a preliminary identification of key parameters and priority areas for remedial actions.
The display and analysis of spatial information is indispensable to generate knowledge about the location of objects, about spatial clusters, and relationships that informs decision-makers and researchers in Vietnam.
This paper investigates whether physical accessibility or ethnicity is a stronger determinant of poverty in Vietnam. Spatially disaggregated welfare indexes for population subgroups show that overall inequality is shaped by an urbanâ€“rural welfare divide, closely followed in importance by sharp welfare differences between ethnic groups. Accessibility to urban areas is a weaker determinant of poverty.The findings have important implications for the targeting of rural development investments. Addressing the factors isolating ethnic minorities from the mainstream economy is likely to be a more useful strategy in reducing rural poverty and inequality than simple geographic targeting.
The Annals of Regional Science. doi: 10.1007/s00168-009-0330-7
Health risks related to wastewater reuse in Thailand using quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA)
Aleix Ferrer Duch, 2008
In the context of the Work Package 3 (Health and Environmental sanitation)within the NCCR North-South, a conceptual framework has been developed using an approach combining health, ecological, socio-economic and cultural assessments.
Frontier Encounters: Indigenous communities and settlers in Asia and Latin America
Danilo Geiger, Marina T. Campos, Christian Erni, Søren Hvalkov, Sabino Padilla, Jr., Devasish Roy, Ranabir Samaddar, 2008
Poverty and the maldistribution of land in core areas of developing countries, together with state schemes for the colonization of unruly peripheries, have forced indigenous peoples and settlers into an uneasy co-existence. On the basis of case study material from various Asian and Latin American countries, Frontier Encounters identifies characteristic patterns of interaction between these groups, explores the dynamics of some of the open conflicts that dot the map of the two continents, and situates them in the context of the politics and economics of the “frontier”.
Daniel Geiger is a doctoral candidate in Social Anthropology at the University of Luzern, Switzerland. He has lectured on political anthropology and indigenous movements. His research experience includes fieldwork in the Philippines and Indonesia. Under the auspices of the NCCR North-South, he has coordinated a comparative research project on conflicts between indigenous communities and settlers in South and Southeast Asia.
Ducks, Rice and People – the Key to HPAI Risk in the Mekong Region.
Marius Gilbert, Stephen Boles, Prasit Chaitaweesub, Christina Czarnecki, Michael Epprecht, Wantanee Kalpravidh, Vincent Martin, Phan Q. Minh, Joachim Otte, Dirk U. Pfeiffer, Jan Slingenbergh, Xiangming Xiao, 2009
HPAI Research Brief No. 8
Mapping H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza risk in Southeast Asia
Marius Gilbert, Stephen Boles, Prasit Chaitaweesub, Christina Czarnecki, Michael Epprecht, Wantanee Kalpravidh, Vincent Martin, Phan Q. Minh, M. J. Otte, Dirk U. Pfeiffer, Jan Slingenbergh, Xiangming Xiao, 2008
"...This article analyses the statistical association between the recorded HPAI H5N1 virus presence and a set of five key environmental variables comprising elevation, human population, chicken numbers, duck numbers, and rice cropping intensity for three synchronous epidemic waves in Thailand and Vietnam. A consistent pattern emerges suggesting risk to be associated with duck abundance, human population, and rice cropping intensity in contrast to a relatively low association with chicken numbers..."
Reuse and Recycle of Bio-residue (percolate) from Constructed Wetland Treating Septage
Sukon Hadsoi, 2005
Master's Thesis, Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand
"The prime objective of this research is to investigate the suitability of percolate from constructed wetland (CW) treating septage in agricultural application with the specific focus on determination of appropriate application ratio of percolate on sunflower plantation and crop yields."
The present research project endeavors to further exploiti the static land cover inventories in combination with regional spatial databases in order to find spatially explicit clues about what processes are responsible for changes observed at the regional scale in the Lower Mekong Basin. The approach is based on the assumption that the geometrical patterns of land cover and land cover dynamics can be indicators for ongoing active processes of change. Methods borrowed from landscape ecology may offer a possibility of quantifying the ability of the human eye to recognize patterns qualitatively. The patterns discovered in the land cover inventories of 1993 and 1997 in the Lower Mekong Basin are linked to hypothetical process groups. The linkage between geometrical pattern and hypothetical process of land cover change is based on expert knowledge systems, thorough meta-analysis of case studies and spatial analysis with regional representations of potential driving forces.
In: Proceeding of the Internation Conference on Agricultural Research for Development: European Responses to Changing Global Needs , 27-29 April 2005, ETH, Zürich, p.37.
The Mekong River Commission (MRC) elaborated a spatial explicit Watershed Classification (WSC) for the Lower Mekong Basin. Based on topographic factors derived from a high-resolution Digital Terrain Model, five watershed classes are calculated, giving indication about the sensitivity to resource degradation by soil erosion. An analysis of the WSC in conjunction with forest cover data revealed that the more the 37% of Laos can be considered as critical with regard to degradation risk by soil erosion. The WSC allows spatial priority setting for watershed management and generally supports informed decision making on reconnaissance level. In the conclusions the article focuses on general considerations when GIS techniques are used for spatial decision support in a development context.
In: Ohgaki S, Fujushi K, Katayama H, Takizawa S, Polprasert C. Southeast Asian Water Environments1: Biodiversity and Water Environments. London: IWA Publishing, pp 43–50.
"The present study seeks to generate a comparable information and knowledge base about land cover change on a mesoscale level for the entire Lower Mekong Basin. Such information is crucial to both informed decision making and the transboundary negotiations on the use and protection of the shared natural resources in regional bodies such as the Mekong River Commission. It may form the basis for achieving a common understanding regarding resource management in the Basin despite diverging national interests. [...]"
"Ein großer Anteil der in tropischen Großstädten eingesammelten Fäkalschlämme gelangt unbehandelt in die Umwelt. Daher ist es notwendig, neben angepassten Schlammbehandlungsverfahren auch Fäkalschlammmanagement-Konzepte zu entwickeln. Eine mögliche Behandlungsoption, die Schlammvererdung in bepflanzten Trockenbeeten, konnte erfolgreich in Bangkok getestet werden. Dabei wurde eine hohe optimale Feststoffbeladung von 250 kg TS/m2 d gefunden."
KA- Abwasser, Abfall 2003, Vol. 50, No. 9, pp. 1162-1167
Improved sanitation has been shown to have great impacts on people’s health and economy. However, the progress of
achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) on halving the proportion of people without access to clean water and basic sanitation by 2015 has thus far been delayed. One of the reasons for the slow progress is that policy makers, as well as the general public, have not fully understood the importance of the improved sanitation solutions. This paper, by gathering relevant research findings, aims to report and discuss currently available evidence on the economic aspects of sanitation, including the economic impacts of unimproved sanitation and the costs and economic benefits of some common improved sanitation options in developing countries.
PhD Thesis, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Switzerland
In his thesis, Dong-Bin Huang developed an event-based dynamic material flow and life-cycle-inventory modeling method and applied it in the urban area of Kunming (China) for urban water resource planning and pollution control of Dianchi Lake.
"Despite continuous investment and various efforts to control pollution, urban water environments are worsening in large parts of the developing world. In order to reveal potential constraints and limitations of current practices of urban water management and to stimulate proactive intervention, we conducted a material flow analysis of the urban water system in Kunming City. The results demonstrate that the current efficiency of wastewater treatment is only around 25% and the emission of total phosphorous from the city into its receiving water, Dianchi Lake, is more than 25 times higher than its estimated tolerance. With regard to the crisis of water quantity and quality, the goal of a sustainable urban water environment cannot be attained with the current problem-solving approach in the region due to the technical limitations of the conventional urban drainage and treatment systems. A set of strategies is therefore proposed. The urban drainage system in Zurich is used as a reference for a potential best-available technology for conventional urban water management (BAT) scenario in terms of its low combined frequency of sewer overflow."
"This paper presents a model structure aimed at offering an overview of the various elements of a strategy and exploring their multidimensional effects through time in an efficient way. It treats a strategy as a set of discrete events planned to achieve a certain strategic goal and develops a new form of causal networks as an interfacing component between decision makers and environment models, e.g., life cycle inventory and material flow models. The causal network receives a strategic plan as input in a discrete manner and then outputs the updated parameter sets to the subsequent environmental models. Accordingly, the potential dynamic evolution of environmental systems caused by various strategies can be stepwise simulated. It enables a way to incorporate discontinuous change in models for environmental strategy analysis, and enhances the interpretability and extendibility of a complex model by its cellular constructs. It is exemplified using an urban water management case in Kunming, a major city in Southwest China. By utilizing the presented method, the case study modeled the cross-scale interdependencies of the urban drainage system and regional water balance systems, and evaluated the effectiveness of various strategies for improving the situation of Dianchi Lake."
Humankind today is challenged by numerous threats brought about by the speed and scope of global change dynamics. A concerted and informed approach to solutions is needed to face the severity and magnitude of current development problems. Generating shared knowledge is a key to addressing global challenges. This requires developing the ability to cross multiple borders wherever radically different understandings of issues such as health and environmental sanitation, governance and conflict, livelihood options and globalisation, and natural resources and development exist.
Global Change and Sustainable Development presents 36 peer-reviewed articles written by interdisciplinary teams of authors who reflected on results of development-oriented research conducted from 2001 to 2008. Scientific activities were – and continue to be – carried out in partnerships involving people and institutions in the global North, South and East, guided by principles of sustainability. The articles seek to inform solutions for mitigating, or adapting to, the negative impacts of global dynamics in the social, political, ecological, institutional and economic spheres.
For the print version, please send your order to: (price: CHF 45.00 / EUR 30.00, excluding postage)
Master's Thesis, Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand
In her MSc thesis, Supattra Jiawkok assessed the existing on-site sanitation systems treating black water in peri-urban communities including (i) the one-cesspool system, (ii) the two-cesspool system in series and (iii) the package tank system at Muaeng Klong Luang Municipality, Klong Luang district, Pathum Thani Province, Thailand.
Re-evaluating the burden of rabies in Africa and Asia
Darryn L. Knobel, Sarah Cleaveland, Paul G. Coleman, Eric M. Fèvre, Martin I. Meltzer, François-Xavier Meslin, M. Elizabeth G. Miranda, Alexandra Shaw, Jakob Zinsstag, 2005
Rabies remains an important yet neglected disease in Africa and Asia. Disparities in the affordability and accessibility of post-exposure treatment and risks of exposure to rabid dogs result in a skewed distribution of the disease burden across society, with the major impact falling on those living in poor rural communities, in particular children.
In: Hurni H, Wiesmann U, editors; with an international group of co-editors. Global Change and Sustainable Development: A Synthesis of Regional Experiences from Research Partnerships. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, University of Bern, Vol. 5. Bern, Switzerland: Geographica Bernensia, pp 331-341.
"Faecal sludge (FS) from the on-site sanitation systems is a nutrient-rich source but can contain high concentrations of toxic metals and chemicals and infectious micro-organisms. The study employed 3 vertical-flow CW units, each with a dimension of 5×5×0.65 m (width×length×media depth) and planted with cattails (Typha augustifolia). At the solid loading rate of 250 kg total solids (TS)/m2.yr and a 6-day percolate impoundment, the CW system could achieve chemical oxygen demand (COD), TS and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) removal efficiencies in the range of 80–96%. A solid layer of about 80 cm was found accumulated on the CW bed surface after operating the CW units for 7 years, but no clogging problem has been observed. The CW percolate was applied to 16 irrigation sunflower plant (Helianthus annuus) plots, each with a dimension of 4.5×4.5 m (width×length). In the study, tap water was mixed with 20%, 80% and 100% of the CW percolate at the application rate of 7.5 mm/day. Based on a 1-year data in which 3 crops of plantation were experimented, the contents of Zn, Mn and Cu in soil of the experimental plots were found to increase with increase in CW percolate ratios. In a plot with 100% of CW percolate irrigation, the maximum Zn, Mn and Cu concentrations of 5.0, 12.3 and 2.5 mg/kg, respectively, were detected in the percolate-fed soil, whereas no accumulation of heavy metals in the plant tissues (i.e. leaves, stems and flowers) of the sunflower were detected. The highest plant biomass yield and oil content of 1000 kg/ha and 35%, respectively, were obtained from the plots fed with 20% or 50% of the CW percolate."
"This paper presents the outcomes of pilot-scale experiments on anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) and polishing systems for the treatment of domestic blackwater, aimed at determining the treatment performance of different integrated low-cost wastewater treatment systems, comprising one ABR as first treatment step followed by three polishing steps operated in parallel, namely an anaerobic filter an intermittent sand filter and a vertical flow constructed wetland. A mixture of septage and domestic wastewater was used as influent wastewater, resulting in influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) concentrations of 1,000 and 300 mg/L, respectively. The ABR system operated at a HRT of 48h could achieve average COD, suspended solids (SS) and total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiencies of 90%, 93% and 50%, respectively. The highest treatment performances in the sand filter and constructed wetland units were reached at HLR of 7 – 10 and 6 – 10 cm/day, respectively, while HRT in the range of 3 - 4 days led to the highest treatment efficiencies in the anaerobic filter. The national effluent standards of Thailand were respected by all systems in terms of average TSS and BOD concentrations. Rather than concluding which system is the most appropriate, the paper discusses specific fields of application for the different systems."
"Large sewer systems with central wastewater treatment plants were long considered a successful model that could be exported to practically any city of the world. This centralized, highly water-consuming system has, however,
shown its limits in some developing and transition countries, especially in fastgrowing cities with limited water resources. This study from around Lake Dianchi in Yunnan, China, investigated the feasibility of introducing measures at the source for the different urban wastewater contributions in the city of Kunming, and the stakeholder perspectives on this approach. In addition, the stakeholders evaluated the potential of two different sanitation alternatives that allowed the separation and re-use of human excreta as fertilizer."
Who Counts? The Demography of Swidden Cultivators.
Ole Mertz, Vu Kim Chi, Carol J. P Colfer, Wolfram Dressler, Michael Epprecht, Andreas Heinimann, Stephen J Leisz, Christine Padoch, Lesley Potter, Kanok Rerkasem, Dietrich Schmidt-Vogt, Thiha Thiha, Pham Van Cu, 2009
Swidden cultivators are often found as a distinct category of farmers in the literature, but rarely appear in population censuses or other national and regional classifications.
This has led to a worldwide confusion on how many people are dependent on this form of agriculture. The most often cited number of 200–300 million dates back to the early 1970s, but the source is obscure. We assess available, published data from nine countries in Southeast Asia and conclude that on this basis it is not possible to provide a firm estimate of the number of swidden cultivators in the region. A conservative range of 14–34 million people engaged in swidden cultivation in the region is suggested, however. We argue that along with improved knowledge of swidden livelihoods, there is an urgent need to develop techniques that will allow for better estimates of swidden populations in order to secure appropriate rural development and poverty reduction in swidden areas.
Human Ecology 37:281-289. doi:10.1007/s10745-009-9249-y.
"Simple models based on the physical and biochemical processes occurring in septic tanks, pit and urine diversion latrines were developed to determine the nutrient flows in these systems. Nitrogen and phosphorus separation in different output materials from these on-site sanitation installations were thus determined. Moreover, nutrient separation in septic tanks was also assessed through literature values and by eliciting expert judgement. Use of formal expert elicitation technique proved to be effective, particularly in the context of developing countries where data is often scarce but expert judgement readily available. In Vietnam, only 5–14% and 11–27% of the nitrogen and phosphorus input, respectively, are removed from septic tanks with the faecal sludge. The remaining fraction leaves the tank via the liquid effluent. Unlike septic tanks, urine diversion latrines allow to immobilise most of the nutrients either in form of stored urine or dehydrated faecal matter. These latrines thus contribute to reducing the nutrient load in the environment and lowering consumption of energy and non-renewable resources for fertiliser production."
In: Hurni H, Wiesmann U, editors; with an international group of co-editors. Global Change Change and Sustainable Development: A Synthesis of Regional Experiences from Research Partnerships. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, University of Bern, Vol. 5. Bern, Switzerland: Geographica Bernensia, pp 343–356.
This paper illustrates how the method of Material Flow Analysis (MFA) can be applied to assess measures aiming at optimizing nitrogen recovery through improved excreta management in Viet Tri, Vietnam. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how the application of MFA could be rendered more affordable for planners and decision-makers in developing countries confronted with poor data availability and quality.
"This paper highlights the spatial linkages of forest quality with poverty incidence and poverty density in Vietnam. Most of the Vietnamese poor live in densely populated river deltas and cities while remote upland areas have the highest poverty incidences, gaps, and severities. Forests of high local and global value are located in areas where relatively few poor people live, but where the incidence, gap, and severity of poverty are strongest, and where the livelihood strategies are based on agricultural and forest activities. Analysis was conducted combining country-wide spatial data on commune-level poverty estimates and the geographic distribution of forest quality. The results suggest the usefulness of targeting investments in remote areas that combine poverty reduction and environmental sustainability."
Pre-conference Proceedings. University of Bern, Switzerland, 2–4 July 2008
NCCR North-South, 2008
NCCR North-South Dialogue, No. 21
Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Northern Vietnam: Hanoi and Thai Nguyen case studies using the moss biomonitoring technique, INAA and AAS
Hung Nguyen-Viet, Nadine Bernard, Marina Vladimirovna Frontasyeva, Daniel Gilbert, Thu My Trinh Thi, 2009
The paper studied the metal atmospheric deposition in Hanoi and Thai Nguyen (Vietnam) using the technique of moss monitoring and combining 2 analytical analyses Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA).
Master's Thesis, Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand
"At present, Thailand does not have action plan and appropriate policy for Fecal Sludge (FS) management and lacking of data on FS collection, treatment and disposal. Nevertheless, FS management has become the responsibility of local authorities. The purpose of this study is to develop database on FS collection, treatment and disposal in three main river basins in central plain of Thailand, namely, Thachin, Chaopraya and Bangpakong."
"Mit zunehmender landwirtschaftlicher Intensivierung hat sich die Wasserqualität des Tha Chin in Thailand massiv verschlechtert. Ein enormes Problem ist der hohe Nährstoffgehalt des Flusses. Unser Stoffflussmodell zeigt, dass ein Grossteil der Nährstoffe aus der intensiven Fischzucht stammt."
[...] With the current research, a Mathematical Material Flow Analysis (MMFA) is applied as an alternative approach to conventional river water quality models. Applied to analyze river water polllution, the MMFA allows to trace the pollution flows and their transformations from their input to the system as resource, through waste production, separation, treatment and finally to their outputs as product or as discharge into receiving water bodies. In this way, the perspective is widened to grasp the river system in an overview and to understand the origins and the main processes involved in the chain of nutrient pollution generation. The key parameters influencing the pollution flows are determined, based on which concrete and effective mitigation measures can be devised and evaluated. [...]
"Material flow analysis (MFA) is a promising tool for river water quality management. Based on orders-ofmagnitude estimations, the approach provides an overview of pollution problems and their dimensions in a river system, allowing to identify key sources and pathways of pollution, and to evaluate mitigation priorities. The current study aims at investigating MFA to assess river water quality problems and mitigation measures in developing countries, based on a case-study carried out in the Tha Chin River Basin (TRB), Thailand."
The Material Flow Analysis (MFA) model provides an overview of the main nutrient flows in the Tha Chin River Basin, Central Thailand. Instead of extensive measuring campaigns, local
data is integrated into the model to quantify these flows and find suitable remediation measures.
With the worldwide intensification of agriculture, non-point source pollution of surface waters has become a pressing issue. Conventional river water quality models consider non-point sources as accumulated entries into the rivers and do not investigate into the processes generating the pollution at its source, thus preventing the determination of effective mitigation measures. The models require extensive data inputs, which is a deficiency in many developing and emerging countries with limited data availability. The current study applies a Material Flow Model as a complementary approach to quantify non-point source pollution from agricultural areas. Rice farming in the Thachin River Basin is presented as a case study, with a focus on nutrients. The total nitrogen and phosphorus flows from rice farming to the river system are quantified, the key parameters influencing these flows are determined and potential mitigation measures are discussed. The results show that rice contributes considerable nutrient loads to the Thachin River Basin. Scenario simulations demonstrate that a significant nutrient load reduction could be achieved by following the official recommendations for fertilizer application, thus confirming the local efforts to introduce best management practice. Our results underline the importance of non-point source pollution control in intensive agricultural areas, particularly of tropical lowland delta areas such as the Central Plains of Thailand. The specific benefit of applying a Material Flow Model in this context is that with limited data availability, one can reach an understanding of the system and gain a first overview over its key pollution problems. This can serve as supportive basis for determining consecutive in-depth research requirements.
Paper available at: http://www.springerlink.com/content/2630616v30q61506/?MUD=MP
Modeling the contribution of pig farming to pollution of the Thachin River
Rapid growth of the livestock production sector in South-East Asia during recent decades has led to a widespread degradation of ground and surface waters. The Thachin River Basin in Central Thailand serves as a case study for investigating the origins and pathways of nutrient loads produced by intensive pig farming. A mathematical material flow analysis is used to identify key nitrogen flows and the main parameters determining them. Scenarios of the potential for reducing these flows and achieving compliance with current discharge regulations are investigated. The results show that liquid waste discharged from large pig farms and directly discharged waste from small farms are the key nitrogen flows to the river system. The key driving forces are not only the treatment coverage and efficiencies but also the rate of reuse and recycling of the treated product.
Paper available at: http://www.springerlink.com/content/l72t1878k2075942
Year of Publication: 2009
Modeling the contribution of point sources and non-point sources to Thachin River water pollution
"Increasingly intensive farming practices have led to a dramatic deterioration of water quality in the Tha Chin River in Thailand. One major problem is the high level of nutrients. According to our model – based on material flow analysis – intensive aquaculture accounts for a large
proportion of the nutrient inputs."
Negotiating Statehood and Humanitarian Assistance in Timor-Leste: an incompatible pair?
Christine Schenk, 2009
In: Christine Cabasset-Semedo, Fréderic Durand, eds. East-Timor. How to build a New Nation in Southeast Asia in the 21st Century; Christine Cabasset-Semedo, Research Institute on Contemporary Southeast Asia, pp. 31-47.
Situationale, personale und soziale Faktoren, welche die Absicht ein flussschützendes Szenario zu unterstützen, beeinflussen
Stakeholder am Tha Chin, Thailand
Ursula Schnellmann, 2006
Master's Thesis, University of Zurich, Switzerland
The MSc thesis describes the factors influencing the preferences of different scenarios for the Tha Chin River in Thailand developed with Material Flux Analysis. The results show that the scenario views, the subjective social norms, the benefit aspects as well as the internal responsibility attribution are predictors of the intent of stakeholders to support specific scenarios for improvement of water quality.
Processes of migration are embedded in social networks, more recently conceptualised as social capital, from sending households to migrants’ formal and informal associations at their destinations. These processes are often assumed to reduce individuals, households and economies’ vulnerabilities and thus attract policy-makers’ attention to migration management. The paper aims to conceptualise the gendered interface between social capital and vulnerability. It utilises Bourdieu’s notion of social capital as an analytical starting point. To illuminate our conceptual thoughts we refer to empirical examples from migration research from various Asian countries.
Bourdieu’s theory highlights the social construction of gendered vulnerability. It goes beyond that by identifying the investment in symbolic capital of female honour as an indirect investment in social and, ultimately, economic capital.
Hydrological Patterns in the Tha Chin River Basin, Thailand
Claus Walcher, 2007
"This thesis lays the focus on the hydrological patterns in the Tha Chin River Basin in Thailand. The study shall contribute to understanding the hydrological system of the Tha Chin River, as a contribution for a Material Flow Analysis (MFA). Existing hydrological data sets are analyzed and complemented by own measured discharge data, in order to quantify the discharge and the water balance of the Tha Chin River. In addition, strategies governing the regulations of canal and main river discharges are explained."
Achieving sustainable development requires knowledge-based and value-conscious social, political, and economic decisions and actions at multiple levels. Research aiming to support sustainable development must co-produce knowledge at the interfaces between disciplines, between science and society, between knowledge cultures in the global North, South, and East, and between global visions and local realities, while remaining rooted in solid disciplinary foundations. Research for Sustainable Development presents 29 articles in which interdisciplinary teams reflect on the foundations of sustainability-oriented research, on concepts, tools, and approaches to overcome the challenges of such research, and on specific issues of sustainable development.
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Modelling the Water and Nutrient Flows of Freshwater Aquaculture in Thailand
A material flow analysis
Irene Wittmer, 2005
Master's Thesis, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Switzerland
"The Tha Chin River Basin (central Thailand) faces major water quality problems. Among others, freshwater aquaculture was identified to be one of the pollution sources. This study looks at nutrient loads coming from freshwater aquaculture systems in the area. A model based on a material flow analysis was set up to quantify the loads to canals and rivers as well as to identify the key factors (parameters) that influence the system. The focus was placed on four different major cultivation systems. For all four considered systems, the amount of feed and nutrient concentrations in feed have the highest influence on the nutrient loads to the canal. [...]"
"This paper describes two experiences with community-led upgrading programmes in precarious settlements in Ho Chi Minh City and discusses how and why these are more effective and appropriate than the city’s "redevelopment" and relocation programmes. Although rapid economic growth has meant improved material conditions for much of the city’s population, it has also had a negative impact on the environment and on the poorer groups whose living conditions are deteriorating, especially in the precarious settlements on vacant lots, along canals and on the city outskirts. The city has plentiful water, but large sections of the population are not reached by piped water and sewers. Although relocation programmes are better managed here than in most cities, many who are relocated suffer a drop in income, a steep rise in housing costs and a disruption to their social networks. The paper ends with some reflections on the changes needed in government attitudes towards citizens."
Comparative Health Impact Assessments on Faecal Sludge Management Practices: A Case Study of Klong Luang Municipality, Thailand
Yajima, A. Yajima, A., 2005
Tha Klong sub district with indiscriminate FS dumping and Klong Luang municipality were selected. In order to determine health risks due to faecal management practices , the quantitiative Microbial risk Assessment (QMRA) was conducted by using microbial data of E.Coli and Salmonella spp. The result shows that estimated mean values of yearly infection risks from accidental ingestion of canal water in various scanario were higher than acceptable risk defined by WHO.
This article discusses alternative sanitation systems enabling the reuse of human waste (organic solid waste, urine, faeces) in agriculture. Case studies in Mexico, China, and Ghana illustrate how the concept of closing nutrient cycles can be succesfully implemented.